Iran is the large country in Middle East, with a total area of
1,648,195 sq km, lying south of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan,
and nourth of Qatar, U.A.E, Bahrein, Saudi-Arabia, Kuwait and
west of Pakistan and Afghanistan and east of Iraq and Turkey.
The Land Boundary is almost 5,261 km along above countries. The
Coast Line is about 2440 km along Caspian Sea, Oman Sea and Persian
Golf. According to the National Geographic Organization statistics
the Total length of Iranian borderlines is 8731 km. The Iran-Iraq
borderline is 1609, Iran-Turkey borderline is 486, Iran-Turkmenistan
borderline is 767, Iran-Armenia borderline is 40, Coastline in
north is 657, Iran-Afghanistan borderline is 945, Iran-Pakistan
is 978, and Coastline in south is 2043 km.
At least 13 neighbours are connected to our border and for this
reason Iran has very Important. The population is approximately
65.5 million, with a growth rate of about 1.5%. The largest Lake
in the world is located in the North of Iran which is called Caspian
Sea. The Capital is Tehran and The Climate is mostly arid and
semi-arid; subtropical along the Caspian Sea. The Language is
Persian (51%) and Persian dialects but there are some other ones
such as: Kurdish(7%), Luri(2%), Balock(2%), Arabic(3%), Gilaki
and Mazandarani(8%), Turkish(24%). The Religion is mostly Islam
(99%) that 89% of the people is Shia and 10% of them is Sunni
and 1% is Zoroastrian, Jewish, Christian and Bahai. The Currency
is 1 Toman which is equal to 10 Iranian rials.
Archaeological findings have placed knowledge of Iranian prehistory
at middle Paleolithic times. The earliest sedentary cultures date
from 14,000 to 18,000 years ago. By the sixth millennium B.C.E,
a fairly sophisticated agricultural society and proto-urban population
had emerged. As a part of the third wave of migration from Europe,
Aryan tribes traveled across the Caspian Sea and settled the area
of Iran around 1500 B.C.E. After centuries of inhabitation and
peaceful co-mingling with the indigenous population, two major
civilizations emerged out of these peoples, the Persian and the
Medes. The following dynasties that ensued were called the Achaemenian
the Parthians, .the Sassanian, the Arabs (such as Omayyads, Abbasids,
Ghazna, the Seljuk Turks, the Kharazmshahi, the Safavid, the Zand,
the Qajar, the Pahlavi, and at last Islamic Republic.
On Feb. 1, 1979, a religious leader, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini,
returned from France to direct a revolution that resulted in a
new, theocratic republic guided by Islamic principles. Back in
Iran after 15 years in exile, Khomeini remained Iran's national
religious and political leader until his death in 1989.
In 1989, just after the Ayatollah's death, Ali Akbar Rafsanjani,
was elected president. During his administration, Rafsanjani strengthened
the bond between mosque and state, thought to be synonymous in
Iran. He also brought Iran more onto the world stage, both economically
and politically. Rafsanjani was eventually re-elected to a second
and final term in 1993. During his second term, Rafsanjani lost
some public support due to his economic policies. These policies
caused food shortages and a rEducation in public services. In turn,
there were riots and demonstrations throughout the country.
In 1997, Ali Mohammad Khatami was elected president of Iran.
President Khatami has emphasized the need for domestic stability
and the need to repair the national economy. There are efforts
under way to improve the petroleum industry and make Iranian oil
more marketable. Conflicting conservative and moderate factions
continue to grapple over the effects of such policies on the country's
future. Supporters of Khatami's reform policy dominated the new
Iranian parliament formed after the February 2000 elections, while
hardliners continue to control the judiciary branch as well as
the military and government media. The struggle between would-be
reformers and fundamentalist hard-liners is discussed in greater
Current Political and Administrative
Historical Outline of Cadastral
Establishing an exact, simple, rapid, certain and changeable system
during the time for managing the affairs related to properties
and buildings in the country.
- Legal Delimitation for ownership of different buildings
(1,200,000 hectares urban cadastre) and fields belonging to
real and government bodies and of endowed fields.
- Reviewing the information and maps during the lifetime
of cadastre project and finally changing the existing system
to modern registration system (cadastre).
- Providing simple and certain relationship for deeds issuing
amending immediately and accurately.
- Creating certainty and speed in properties transactions.
- Widespread decreasing of trespassing in properties and
the relevant claims in the law courts.
- Access to the needed financial cadastral information or,
eventually, providing of such information.
- Utilizing the technical cadastral documents such as maps,
aerial photos, and other information for researching, developing
and preparing the urban development programs.
- Supporting the right of government in all stages of property
transformations on basis of the relevant deeds.
- Supporting the income of the government directly or indirectly.
- Procuring a continuous income by selling the maps and cadastral
data to the clients, private and public sectors.
- Access to the necessary means for housing policy, land,
property and division of population and development of cultural,
social, economical and agricultural planning.
- Providing useful technical occupation in different fields
of surveying, computer and legal registration.
Purpose of Cadastral System:
The First Cadastre Project's objective is to develop a real estate
registration program which will provide:
- Property owners with security of ownership rights;
- commercial banks with the confidence necessary to give
secured credit against real estate;
- the real estate market with information on ownership and
location of property as needed for the market to function
- Government agencies and institutions with basic information
for urban planning and land management;
- The real estate market with information or property values;
- The private sector with opportunities to develop in areas
related to real estate registration.
In Iran the objective of the cadastral project is the creation
of a Legal Cadastre system at this time and consequently multipurpose
cadastral system in the future.
Types of Cadastral Systems:
Historically to distinguishing the ownership of properties a conventional
land registration system developed for the semi accurate mapping,
surveying, management and administration of public and private
lands. Through computerization of the abstract of Deeds these
two mapping systems must be integrated to facilitate wider land
management and environmental planning. Today the aim is to distribute
the activities of cadastral mapping through the provinces with
the responsibility of maintaining an updating within provincial
cadastral offices. The Economic Ministry also supports
fiscal cadastre and fulfil the all taxation activities inside
the country. There is urgent necessity to integrate these three
agencies (Ministry & Organization) and coordinates the activities.
Cadastral systems in Iran are operated by the 11 state offices
and operate in such a way that land parcels are surveyed in the
field while the corresponding land ownership titles are recorded
in the Land Registry. The Land Registry uniquely identifies each
parcel corresponding to the title if the property has formal deed.
The relationship between these two main units is usually a 1:1-relationship,
i.e. each land parcel is usually related to one land ownership
entry in the land registry.
The taxation and legal aspects are doing in parallel ways. Nowadays
in Iran we are trying to have one street address for each property
within the cities and each property usually has one or more houses
or apartments. On the other hand the Iranians are going to have
Civic codes as well (which is called Melli Code in Iran). In most
cases, however, a property consists of one parcel only. While
the title registration is of interest to the land registry, the
most cases (around 80% or more) to transfer the land or property
is, issuing the advocacy letter (which is called Bonchagh in Iran)
and is very efficiently doing. Land and Buildings are part of
the property records with records maintained by many local councils,
especially in rural areas, as well.
According to the law, if somebody doesn't have any formal evidence
to prove his ownership, he could come to land registration and
apply one (The Laws 147 & 148 in Land Registry). The cadastral
office will survey his property and give him the deed within certain
time if there is no adversely claim comes up on that time.
Content of Cadastral System:
Iranian Cadastral system typically comprises the following components:
- Database Component - the land register identifies real property
parcels, which includes all land parcels and identifies owners'
- Spatial Component - Cadastral maps show all land parcels
graphically corresponding to the registered title with plan
numbers and unique identifiers. These are all now digitised.
Cadastral maps consist of fixed and general boundaries.
- Fixed boundaries are those with legally surveyed measurements
used to precisely identify most parcel boundaries determined
by cadastral surveys such as subdivision etc.
- General boundaries (graphical) are not survey accurate
or are not distinguish at photos and are based on natural
or man-made physical features, such as walls and buildings
as found on Cluster or Strata Titles.
- Additional legal, valuation, local government, utilities
and planning activities are involved in land administration,
and are heavily reliant on the fundamentals of the cadastral
system. In particular local government rates, land tax and stamp
duty (as a result of land transfer) on land parcels is a major
revenue raiser for the economy.
- Vaghf Lands Management have management and administrative
responsibility for some public state owned lands