Historical Outline of Cadastral
The cadastral system was originally introduced in the then Tanganyika
(present mainland Tanzania) by the German colonial administration.
The British colonial administration developed it and so did the
independent Tanganyika and later, Tanzania administration.
The concept of Cadastral Surveying was introduced in Tanzania
by the German colonial administration, which formed the Department
of Surveying and Agriculture in 1893. The British followed the
footsteps of the German administration. Initially cadastral surveys
were used for the alienation of land to European settlers.
The primary objective of cadastral surveying in Tanzania is to
provide geometric description, sizes and locations of land parcels
for purposes of facilitating equitable access to land and registration
of land rights. Based on this, an extract of or a reduced copy
of the cadastral plan of a land parcel(s) is annexed to the certificate
of title. Recently, the primary objective has evolved into fiscal
purposes whereby cadastral surveys are used as a basis for collection
of land/property rent/tax and for supporting land market.
The cadastral surveying system is administratively placed in
the same Ministry as the other related disciplines, namely Land
Use Planning/Zoning, Land Administration, Valuation and Land Registration
The Surveys and Mapping Division administers the execution of
all cadastral surveys in the country including: monitoring, regulating
and supervising cadastral works undertaken by Government and Licensed
Private Surveyors. In this regard, it checks and ensures that
all cadastral surveys in the country are executed in accordance
with the specified standards, approves cadastral tasks, keeps
and maintains records of approved surveys, prepares or causes
the preparation of deed plans needed in the compilation of Certificates
of Title to land parcels, establishes and densifies control system
upon which cadastral (and other) surveys are connected.
The cadastral survey process uses ground survey methods employing
numerical techniques. Ground methods are invariably used largely
because most survey tasks are sporadic and often involve the survey
of single land parcels (expensive). The surveys are based on fixed,
monumented, boundary marks that delimit the corners of land parcels.
The marks showing the corner points of land parcels are either
a concrete block (a numbered beacon) or an Iron Pin in Concrete
(IPC) firmly held in the ground by mortar.