The Argentinean Cadastre completes an important role in society
and had a long history of development over many years. It has
advanced significantly and expansively over the last few years
due to the technological advances in geo-information on the one
hand, and to the possibilities of realising cadastral development
projects that have been carried out in the majority of provinces,
either with World Bank finance or provincial contributions.
The implementation in the cadastres of Land Information Systems,
orientated toward the multi-purpose cadastre, has increased their
potential significantly in respect of the services they provide
to society. Consequently, many opportunities and challenges are
foreseen in the future.
Although inhabited for over 40,000 years by the Aboriginal peoples,
their land rights did not gain legal recognition until 1993 with
the introduction of the Indigenous Native Titles Act.
The development of the Australian cadastral system was not influenced
by the land ownership systems or patterns of the indigenous peoples.
Instead from the initial colonization period of 1788 Australia
began adopting the English system of deeds registration for land
transfer. It was not until the mid 1850s in the colony of South
Australia that Robert Torrens introduced the system of Certificate
of Title to simplify land transfer, which had become expensive,
complicated and inefficient. By 1874 all States of Australia ...
From the 13th century there were sovereigns who evaluated on
lists ("Urbare") their income.
In the Middle Age it was usual to document contracts on real
estate within cities in form of chronological lists. It was a
documentation of individual civil rights and an example for a
land register ("Grundbuch").
1718 Austrian Administration introduced a registration system
within the Italian provinces for all buildings and parcels based
on a surveying and mapping in the field. "Censimento milanese"
was designed and organized by Johann Jacob Marinoni (1676-1755).
Within three years he managed the survey (including local triangulation)
of 20,000 sqkm (which is as large as Lower Austria) only.
1812 Civil Code (Allgemein Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch) ...
The creation of the Belgian Cadastre comes from France. During
the French Revolution, the "constituante" (the Constituante Assembly)
decided in 1790-1791, the creation of the general cadastre and
the land tax. The "Constituante Assembly" gave rules of conduct
- the preliminary operation;
- the overall view;
- the survey of the parcels of land;
- the fixation of the borders town (communes);
- and the triangulation of the communes.
With the Napoleonic conquests, the Belgian areas became a part
The history of land management and administration in Cambodia
goes back to the Civil Code of 1920, which established the system
of French land law that recognized private property rights. During
the 1960s there was an adequate system of land management, including
confirmation of private property rights with land records including
cadastral map and land titles. The land management system started
deteriorating during the period 1970-1975. Thereafter under the
Pol Pot regime (1975-1979), not only were private property rights
completely destroyed but all cadastral records, including cadastral
map and titles, were also destroyed. The professionals in land
laws and land management, registration and surveying were either
The modern cadastre began in 1930s in China, served for taxes
and ownership. The Land Administration Law of the People's Republic
of China, was firstly promulgated in 1986 and was revised in 1998,
ensured that the ownership of land could be separated from the
right of using. In most cases of cities, lands are state-owned,
what can be assigned, sold and resold, leased or mortgaged is
the right of using within a fixed term, for example, lots for
residential use are usually assigned a use term of 70 years. China
tried to initiate a cadastral survey and land registration program
in several relatively well-developed regions in 1986. In the 1990s,
a major cadastral survey and land registration activity was conducted
in most regions of China. Its main objective was to obtain and
record the basic data and attributes of every parcel, including
land area, land classification, boundary, ownership, area of building
and so on.
The patterns of individual ownership started to emerge, in Cyprus
the period after the year 1050 BC. Before that period the system
of land tenure was on a purely communal basis.
An inscription of the 5th century BC excavated in Cyprus, and
it can be described as a title to land. It mentions that the King
of Idalio and the town itself rewarded a physician who had cured
those wounded during a siege with the grand of royal lands, of
a value of one silver talent, in full ownership. The inscription
reveals certain important characteristics of land ownership in
ancient Cyprus. It indicates that there were then not only royal
lands but also private ownership, mentioned by owner's names.
It also indicates the existence of land taxation and of inheritance
in those days. The inscription mentions that it was placed under
the protection of the priestess of goddess Athena, as a guarantee
of title to ownership. ...
Czech cadastre has its roots in former Austrian cadastre and
Land registry ("Grundbuch"). Modern era of cadastre and Land registration
is based on the Cadastral law from 1819, Civil Code from 1811
and the Land registration Act from 1871. This cadastre based on
a new mapping was designed solely for fiscal purposes of the state,
but since 1871 (new Land registration Act) the description and
presentation parcels in the cadastre was compulsory used in land
registration, later a copy of cadastral map was a part of Land
Registry. The Cadastre was administered and maintained by Ministry
of finance, Land Registry by Courts.
Next cadastral development was heavily influenced by political
The Danish cadastre, which derived from the results of the enclosure
movement, was established in the year 1844. From the beginning
the cadastre consisted of two parts: the cadastral register and
the cadastral maps. Both of these components have been updated
continually ever since.
As a result of the enclosure movement in the late 1700's, the
former feudalistic society was changed into a society based on
private ownership to land. The resulting property framework from
the enclosure movement formed the basis for the new cadastral
maps. Each map, in the scale of 1:4000, includes a village and
the associated cultivated areas. The provincial towns were surveyed
separately based on a provision from 1863 ...
In 1875, the very first Department of Lands and Immigration was
established and at the same time, a Survey Office was setup and
headed by a Surveyor-General. One of the Surveyor General's first
duties was to issue licences to survey land. No surveys of land
carried out by persons other than licensed surveyors would be
recognized by any Court or the Registrar of Titles.
In 1876, the Real Property Ordinance was enacted and came into
force a year later. This is the principal act which has dictated
the survey profession in Fiji and was based on the famous Torrens
Systems of land registration. The Ordinance also ensured that
all lands registered under the Ordinance were properly surveyed
to the satisfaction of the administering Government ...
The registration of holdings started for taxation purposes in
the year 1539. The king had decided to construct a list of peasants
and their taxes. Feudalism was never introduced in Finland and
the peasants always retained their personal freedom. The holdings
were numbered village by village. These numbers form even today
the base for the identifiers of the basic property units (as defined
by the UNECE/HBP/135:Guidelines on Real Property Units and Identifiers).
From the 17th century these books were accomplished with village
cadastral maps. The first surveyor was assigned to Finland in
1633 by the king.
A remarkable land reform started in 1762 and lasted for almost
150 years. The shape of private farms was improved and new peasants
were settled especially on the crown land of the eastern part
of the country ...
Security of land tenure in Germany has a tradition of some centuries.
The forms of land registration in former centuries had great variety
because of the great number of independent states on the territory
of the present Federal Republic of Germany. The basic laws have
been quite different as well, because since the end of the 30
years war in 1648 states like Prussia or Saxony have been completely
At the beginning of the 19th century in some of the kingdoms
cadastral systems have been established for taxation purposes.
In some of the western provinces the establishment of cadastral
systems for taxation purposes are based on the cadastres that
were established by ...
The Land Registration Ordinance was first enacted in 1844 and
continued to be in force to this moment. It is an English system
of deeds registration for transaction. Land parcels are disposed
through auction, tender and private treaty grant such that land
rights are held in leasehold, except an Anglican church which
enjoys a freehold title. Land boundary right, like any other rights,
is to be traced from the attached plan and content of the lease
or other land grant document. The boundary system is only designed
for the Identification of the location of a parcel. Boundary security
is not the original design.
The first land cadastre was introduced during the reign of King
II. Joseph. The land cadastre based on cadastral survey for the
purpose of land taxation. The implementation of general land taxation
failed due to the opposition of the nobility. Finally the land
cadastre was established in the Austrian-Hungarian Monarchy in
1875 based on detailed field survey. There were two parts of the
cadastre: cadastral register and cadastral maps. The original
scale, of cadastral maps 1:1440 in urban and 1:2880 in rural areas.
The cadastre was established for fiscal purpose land taxation,
based on the yielding capacity of the land.
The cadastral system also supported the legal (Grundbuch) system.
The descriptive part of the Grundbuch (parcel number, area, address
The colonial rulers in India initiated revenue surveys two century
ago, which was based on the systems adopted in England and Western
Europe. This survey was started with a view of collection of revenue
for estates. Survey of India as a department of government of
India establish in 1767 was fully involved in the process of revenue
surveying till 1904.
In 1904, each states of India were made responsible for cadastral
surveys. Each states has evolved their own way of legal system
of cadastral survey for revenue collection. The process of cadastral
survey in India has not yet taken full advantage of modern technology
available in surveying and mapping.
Indonesia was colonized by the Dutch in early seventeen century
to mid nineteen century. The date of August 18, 1620 was noted
as the first basis implementation of the cadastre in Indonesia,
indicated by the pronouncement of the VOC (Vercenigde Oost-Indisch
Campagnie: an early Dutch company led to the Dutch colony) on
regulation to control the lands distributed to its employees and
resettled inhabitants from the Netherlands. But it has been only
having adequate implementation since 1961 by the Government Regulation
No. 10 Year 1961 as the completion of Art. 19 Basic Agrarian Law
(BAL): Act No. 5 Year 1960 (UUPA).
Cadastre in Indonesia is legal cadastre (conducted by the National
Israel, as many other countries, has a statutory division of
land - the cadastre. The modern Israeli Cadastre was established
in 1928 by the British Mandatory Administration in Palestine,
and was based on Torrens principles (Registration of Titles).
In similar to mapping, which over the recent decades has been
gradually undergoing a transition from the graphic sphere to the
digital sphere, the cadastre in Israel is now also in transition
from analogue era to digital era. The changes instituted thus
far, and those expected in the cadastre in the future, could be
classified into four stages: Analogue (conventional) cadastre,
Graphic (computerized) cadastre, Analytical coordinate based cadastre
and Three-Dimensional Multi-Layer cadastre.
The institutionalized surveying and mapping activities in the
country began in 1920, when the British mandate authorities established
a Survey Department and ...
Establishing an exact, simple, rapid, certain and changeable
system during the time for managing the affairs related to properties
and buildings in the country.
- Legal Delimitation for ownership of different buildings
(1,200,000 hectares urban cadastre) and fields belonging to
real and government bodies and of endowed fields.
- Reviewing the information and maps during the lifetime
of cadastre project and finally changing the existing system
to modern registration system (cadastre).
- Providing simple and certain relationship for deeds issuing
The first survey that can be called 'Cadastre' in Japan was carried
out through the country at the end of 16th century. The purpose
was, however, to survey the harvest of rice by measuring the dimension
of farmland with the same standard.
The first cadastral survey in meaning of the present age in Japan
started in 1873. However, the results are not based on the national
geodetic control point network, and accuracy of the dimension
and border is not enough either.
After World War II the National Land Survey Law was enforced
in 1951, and reform of cadastre started. This survey is still
The establishment of the first institution dealing with land
registration can be traced back to 1857 when the Ottoman government
created Tabu (land registry offices) in Bilad Ash Sham (Greater
Syria), which included Jordan. Its main task was to make a kind
of land inventory for taxation purposes and for this they created
what they called then Tabu books where they documented a descriptive
information about the land, such as its value, owner or beneficiary
(user), neighbouring owners, roads, valleys, etc. There was no
real mapping or surveying process at this stage. Jordan legally
remained part of the Ottoman empire until 6th Aug 1924, the date
of certification of Luzanne treaty, article (139) of which entitled
and enabled Trans Jordan to acquire the ...
The British administration introduced the registration of land
ownership throughout the islands. Traditionally titles over land
was passed from father to son or as gift for personal favor while
in old age or title passed to daughter when leaving the family
in marriage. Transfer of title was reflected in the registers.
Unfortunately, probably due to unavailable resources during the
administration most customary freehold land registered were not
surveyed. Very crude estimations of land sizes however were recorded
in the compiled registers. Today disputes over freehold customary
titles and land boundaries were common throughout the country.
The first cadastral surveys were carried out in 1950s when the
Korea (Rep. of):
The Korean cadastral surveying system was established according
to the results of the land surveying and forest surveying project
from 1910 to 1924. Through these projects, overall cadastral surveying
and land review were performed and progressed to graphical cadastre
by control point surveying and plane surveying. Digitization of
cadastral maps started from 1990s and will be completed in 2003.
The establishment of the "Parcel Based Land Information System"
(PBLIS) is supposed to finish in 2003. The further task will be
data transformation of each cadastral map into seamless maps in
order to use them in National Geographic Information System (NGIS),
and overlapping land information into cadastral information and
improvement of accuracy.
As in many other countries, cadastre historically was established
in Latvia for the classification and registration of properties
in order to tax them according to their quality and quantity.
As territory of Latvia was under the rule of other countries from
1200s until the beginning of 1900s, development within cadastral
sector was defined by policies and interests realized by these
Beginnings of land accounting in Latvia can be found already
in Middle Ages. In 900s - 1200s classification of land possessed
by farmers in cadastral measurement units - 'aratrum' - was started
in the territory of Latvia in order to define impost and corvee.
In 1500s-1600s land surveying and valuation was started. Under
Swedish rule from 1683-1693 the ...
The roots of the Lithuanian cadastre date back to the early medieval
ages when the land was considered as a primary symbol of wealth
and resources. At that time land-based relations were defined
by the customary law; some time later they were subject to the
regulation by Grand Dukes' privileges and finally, in the 16th
century, by the Statute of Lithuania.
In 16th century, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania performed an important
land administration reform resulting in the separation of lands
in terms of their ownership (possessed by noblemen, peasants and
the Grand Duke). The size of the land parcels allocated to peasants
was based on valakas (measurement unit equal to 21 ha). A descriptive
inventory of all public lands ...
The land registration system has more than 100 years of history
while cadastral system has only 20 years.
With the objective of providing a complete, reliable, computerized
and constantly updated cadastral plan for Macao, the cadastral
system was introduced in the 1980s. From 1983 to 1998, the Cartography
and Cadastre Bureau conducted a full-scale systematic survey throughout
the territory of Macao and in 1994 the Cadastral Act was passed.
The Cadastral Act (Decreto-Lei nº3/94/M) and Land Registration
Act (Decreto-Lei nº46/99/M) build the legal framework for cadastral
surveying and land registration.
The Macao cadastre comprises more than ten thousand land parcels.
The cadastral plans were published during 1994 to 1998 for the
consultation of landowners and other users. They may order printouts
of cadastral plans at a reasonable price.
The Torrens system, based essentially on the Fijian Act, was
introduced into the FMS between the years 1879 and 1890. Through
succeeding political changes in the country, it finds present
statutory expression in the National Land Code, 1965 (NLC) in
Peninsular Malaysia, the Sabah Land Ordinance, in the state of
Sabah and the Sarawak Land Code, in the state of Sarawak.
The National Land Code (NLC) was enacted to establish a uniform
land system to replace the existing systems. Prior to the passing
of the NLC, two quite different systems of land tenure existed
side by side. The former British Colonies of Penang and Malacca
retain a system peculiar to the pre-war "Straits Settlements"
(modelled on the English laws of property and conveyancing) whereby
privately executed deeds are the basis of title to land while
the remaining nine Malay States, by contrast, employ a system
based on the principle that private rights in land can derive
only from express grant by the State or secondarily from state
registration of subsequent statutory dealings.
The land is and has been one of the fundamental resources for
any city, therefore, it is natural that since ancient times it
has been studied and tried to be classified, registered and taxed
with reference to the property.
The origin of cadastre in the Prehispanic Mexico is reflected
in the different systems of information used by the Aztec Empire,
with respect to its complex political and social organization,
according to its different tributary, record and cartographic
relationships, which is the main antecedent of colonial maps and
plans based on the Mesoamerican cadastral information in reference
to the type of property. With the appearance of mine centers and
huge properties it was necessary to give a legal support to the
forms of regulation ...
Before Hauptmann Kurt von Francois in 1889 arrived to Namibia
with his 21 soldiers and proclaimed Deutsche Schutzgebiet Südwest-Africa
had inventiveness German settlers occupied large areas from the
indigenous people for a few bottles of snaps. There were
no requirements for survey and boundaries were only described
in vague and ambiguous phrases. It soon became too much for the
German sense of order, and in 1904 a regiment German Feldvermessungstruppen
arrived to establish control points and undertake topographical
mapping of the protectorate.
Shortly after it became compulsory to survey and register all
subdivisions and land transactions. At the beginning of the First
World War ...
The development of cadastral system in Nepal is very gradual.
Although the land recording system is very old in Nepal, only
a few decades have been elapsed since the systematic cadastral
system was developed. However, there exists, one way or another
a certain uniform system throughout the country. The rudimentary
land registration system was based on verbal descriptions and
there exists some very primitive method of measuring a parcel.
For example, the size of a parcel is defined by Hale, Pate, Kodale,
Kute etc. In 1965, Cadastral Mapping along with the registration
of the parcel was also launched side by side to support Land Reform
Programme. Consequently, a detailed land recording system was
established and based on these records ...
In 1810 the introduction of a fiscal cadastre became actual after
the earlier mentioned annexation of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
by France. The French legislation came into power. Some years
before, in 1808, Napoleon Bonaparte, who needed money to finance
his activities, decided to establish a system of land taxation,
based on a accurate inventory of land use and land ownership,
with precise land survey of land parcels: a fiscal cadastre. In
1811 it was decided that also in the occupied Netherlands such
a system of land taxation should be introduced. As a consequence,
in 1812 the work started to survey the land, and to list users
and owners of the land parcels.
The administrative structure in the cadastre was as follows.
The Maori people had a form of customary cadastre based on tribal
ownership. This was generally demarcated by prominent geographical
features, and there was no form of written record.
The Treaty of Waitangi guaranteed Maori rights of ownership,
but with the influx of British settlers from the 1830s onwards
there were a number of large land sales. Conflict between the
Maori and settlers over land lead to a series of wars, a consequence
of which much land was confiscated from Maori for settlement.
Embryonic and local survey systems were set up from 1840 in the
major settlement areas and a Maori Land court established to formalise
and individualise title to Maori land. ...
Initially land in Norway was occupied by individuals for farming.
Later the king and the church were owners of large properties.
From approximately 1650 the king started to sell out land, a process
that lasted for almost 200 years. At the end of the 19th century
80% of properties were in private ownership.
The first known property register in Norway dates from about
1250, implemented for raising tax to the crown and for drafting
men for military service. But formal registration of private properties
started in the medieval times. The current legislation and system
came into practice during the last century, mostly based on the
German system. However a proper cadastre, based on professional
surveying and mapping of boundaries, only existed in the bigger
cities before 1980. ...
The Cadastral survey program in the Philippines may be said to
have its beginning as early as 1903 when the American Civil Government
in the Philippines purchased in 1902, some 410,000 hectares of
friar lands and had them surveyed and allocated to the occupants
under a scheme of agrarian reform. Actual inauguration of cadastral
survey projects under the present numbering system however, begun
in November 1909 with the first project numbered as Cadastral
Project No. 1 covering the town of Pilar Province of Bataan. American
surveyors exclusively conducted the cadastral survey from 1909
to 1915. The participation of American surveyors was gradually
reduced until 1921 when the execution of surveys were all done
by Filipino ...
The first land surveyors came to the Cape in approximately 1658,
five years after Jan van Riebeek had established the first European
settlement at the Cape. The first cadastral survey was for a piece
of land along the banks of the Liesbeek River in order to transfer
land to a released servant of the Dutch East India Company.
Until 1857, surveys were represented in a graphical manner using
natural features as boundaries. After 1857, theodolites were used
and the recording of numerical data on diagrams was compulsory.
The British occupation introduced legislation (Cradock Proclamation)
in 1813 that no sale of land would be recognized unless the land
had been properly surveyed and registered. ...
After the occupation of the country by the British, several attempts
have been made for the establishment of a cadastre based on cadastral
surveys. The proclamation by Governor North in the year 1800 for
land owners to appear before the 'Land raad' (a judicial official)
produce evidence of title and get their lands surveyed is the
first attempt. This failed. Systematic cadastral surveys commenced
in three sub urban villages within the capital Colombo itself
(village names are Dehiwala, Wellawatta and Kirillapone) based
on an Act passed in 1877 for the purpose. However, this activity
was abandoned in 1891, after three years of operation, mainly
due to the high costs involved. Subsequent attempts in the form
of several studies, recommendations and ...
The modern Swedish cadastre is based on cadastral books from
1530, established for taxation purposes by the king. These books
list real properties village by village and give every unit a
number in the village. This numbering system is still used for
designation of real properties. During the 17th century these
books were complemented by village cadastral maps, showing all
real parcels in the village. The purpose of these maps was mainly
to improve the taxation of land and make it more just and equal,
by surveying the area and value of each land parcel. In order
to carry out this task, Lantmäteriet (National Land Survey) was
created 1628 as a governmental organisation.
Land registration (land titles) have been confirmed since ...
During the early 19th century under Napoleonic influence, cadastres
were established in many of the 26 Cantons; however, mainly for
fiscal purposes. With the putting in force of the Federal Constitution
in 1847, a modern state with a stable rule of the law developed,
and with the industrial developments, the need for a legal cadastre
emerged, securing land ownership rights and enabling land transactions.
The Civil Law from 1912 constitutes the basis of the "Federal
Land Registry System". It was detailed with the "Instruction for
the Monumentation and Cadastral Surveying" in 1919 and with the
"Ordinance for Land Registry" from 1910. When the cadastral system
has been established in the ...
The cadastral system was originally introduced in the then Tanganyika
(present mainland Tanzania) by the German colonial administration.
The British colonial administration developed it and so did the
independent Tanganyika and later, Tanzania administration.
The concept of Cadastral Surveying was introduced in Tanzania
by the German colonial administration, which formed the Department
of Surveying and Agriculture in 1893. The British followed the
footsteps of the German administration. Initially cadastral surveys
were used for the alienation of land to European settlers.
The primary objective of cadastral surveying in Tanzania is to
provide geometric description, sizes and locations of land parcels
for purposes of facilitating ...
The past of the land registration organization in Turkey goes
back to 150 years ago. The first Land Registration Organization
was established in 1847 to perform transactions concerning real
estates. This organization lasted when the Republic of Turkey
is founded. The first established records have been intended for
only property and land registry transactions. No works have been
done concerning maps, establishing and updating cadastral surveys
during that period.
After the Republic of Turkey was founded, establishing an independent
Land Registration organization was given importance on, because
this matter required special experience and its scope was broad.
For this ...
In pre-soviet Central Asia, the many land tenure variations followed
Islamic law and local traditions. The Khan or Emir owned all undeveloped
land and the public land that was administered locally. At that
time local rules (Adat) and Islamic law (Shariat) regulated land
tenure. Whoever started to utilise undeveloped land on continuous
basis became its owner. The land was transferable and subject
to tax depending on its nature. Private lands were inheritable
to all sons and therefore over times land holdings became fragmented.
After the 1917 revolution, all previous laws were abolished and
the all territory of Uzbekistan obeyed the laws of the USSR. Land
was nationalised ...
El proceso de conquista y colonización en Venezuela no resultó
ser una tarea fácil por los problemas y sucesivas guerras con
la población indígena que se oponía a la conquista. La reducción
de los indios a "pueblos" no se pudo hacer fácilmente pues no
existía una población con unidad social y de estabilidad en sus
asentamientos como sucedió en el resto de América Latina. Fue
a través de la creación de "poblaciones Indígenas", con presencia
religiosa, siglo y medio después del descubrimiento que se efectuó
una efectiva colonización.
Es en la etapa de la colonia, cuando se dan los primeros pasos
para ordenar las ciudades a través de una serie de normas y ordenanzas
para la fundación de "pueblos de indios" quienes estuvieron sujetos