Description if the cadastral system has a legal (land transfer,
land market), fiscal (land valuation, land tax), and/or multiple
purpose role (planning, local government).
Cadastral system covers the following roles: legal (land transfer,
land market), fiscal (land valuation, land tax), and multiple
purpose role (planning, local government). As each province has
its own cadastre the emphasis in the roles mentioned above vary
according to the province, mainly in the multipurpose one.
The cadastral systems in Australia were historically designed
for the transfer of land ownership in a legal land market. Secondly
the cadastral system supports the legal ownership of land, and
defining, identifying, demarcating, measuring and mapping legal
parcel boundaries. Due to the high integrity of the cadastral
system it now plays a more fundamental role in broader land administration
activities, as the core spatial data set in spatial data infrastructures
(SDI). Through the computerisation of spatial and textual data
the cadastre now serves a multi-purpose role supporting many activities.
These include supporting an active land market, valuation of land
and land taxation, land management and planning, land development,
local government and utilities management, emergency management
and many other multipurpose functions.
The Austrian system is a "title registration". The registered
owner has public faith of being owner. The title registration
is operated in close cooperation with cadastre.
A development to cover the following aims can be recognized:
- to administrate critical items,
- to tax subjects, objects or rights and
- to control the processes, infrastructure and their changes.
For all this it was and still is necessary to collect data and
control over the 3 basic categories of data:
- objects and
- rights as relation between subjects with objects.
The Austrian cadastre is used for multiple purposes and serves
as the basic system for Zoning plans, Provincial Geographic Information
Systems as well as for IACS (Integrated Agricultural Control System).
Historically, Belgium has a Napoleonic Cadastre. The Belgian
cadastre should have been in the beginning a legal and juridical
cadastre system where the immovables files should be update by
civil servants. These immovables files should be the proof of
the property. The civil servants should have an active updating.
But it wasn't so because it was not possible to consult all the
The Belgian cadastre is a "personal cadastre". When we say that
the Belgian cadastre is not a juridical cadastre, it doesn't mean
the Belgian cadastre has not any juridical quality. Indeed, the
Belgian cadastre doesn't give a title, but without title, the
Belgian cadastre can give a presumption. The title ...
Brunei Cadastral system was designed for the proposed of registration,
transfer of ownership etc.
The cadastral system in Cambodia is designed to provide the legal
ownership of land. Secondly, the cadastral system supports the
transfer of land ownership in formal land market and supports
the land administration activities.
In China, land market grew and gradually matured only after the
open-door policy implemented, so there was no operational cadastral
system before that. It was in 1986 that the State Bureau of Land
Administration (now assembled into the Ministry of Land Resources)
started the re-establishment of cadastre in China. The multi-purpose
cadastre and land information system have gradually been established,
and put into use. Although the concept of multi-purpose cadastral
system is widely accepted, the main applications of such systems
are in land administration, the major users are governmental services.
The cadastral system in Cyprus supports the legal ownership of
land, land transfer, land valuation, and the definition, identification,
demarcation, measuring and mapping of legal parcel boundaries.
Today the cadastral system plays a fundamental role in broader
land administration activities. Through the computerization of
spatial and textual data the cadastre now serves a multipurpose
role supporting many activities. These include supporting land
management and planning, land development, local government and
utilities management and many other multipurpose functions.
Present cadastral system works as a multipurpose tool (first
of all for legal and fiscal purposes, but the cadastral data are
generally used in planning, for making decision of local government
and for all land oriented information systems).
Over time the Danish cadastre has changed from being primarily
a basis for land valuation and taxation to a legal cadastre supporting
a land market. Today the cadastre has a much broader objective,
and it is accepted that when cadastral information is a part integrated
information systems it can improve the efficiency of the land
transfer process as well as the overall land management process.
The last two decades has seen moves to establish a complete computerised
cadastral information system. In short, the Danish cadastral system
has met the challenge of adapting to the modern digital GIS-environment.
Endless boundary disputes with associated problems were very
common when trying to locate boundaries of leases. This was the
result of issuing leases of an area less than 10 acres on native
land without proper survey. In late 1910, the Native Land Ordinance
was amended to further protect the interest of lease holders.
It was therefore required that all leases and other titles that
would be registered in the Real Property Register had to be properly
surveyed. For the first time, Regulations governing the survey
of lands to be registered in the Real Property Register were enacted.
As in other countries in the region, the cadastral system in
Fiji was historically designed for the transfer of land ownership
in the legal land market. ...
The purpose of the Land Information System (LIS) is to secure
the legal interests in land and conveyancing. The system serves
also fiscal purposes for which the tax authorities have a register.
Furthermore the system serves more and more as a source of land
information for planning etc.
The land register shows the legal status of all real property.
In its documentation and publication role it works as the statutory
basis for property conveyancing, in particular to ensure unequivocal
status of ownership and other titles, as well as for mortgage
The cadastre in Germany is defined as the official register of
all parcels and buildings in a state, in which all parcels are
described with graphical and textual data. The real property cadastre
is designed to show the de facto status of property. As
far as legal property titles are concerned, the cadastre shows
their scope and the part of the surface to which they extend.
All relevant facts, such as designation, location, size and use,
plus the boundaries as surveyed ...
Hong Kong started as a British colony in 1842 and its purpose
of cadastral system is defined in the Land Registration Ordinance
(1844) mainly for the transaction of land ownership, and has remained
largely unchanged since then. Hong Kong emphasizes free trade
and minimum government intervention. Other cadastral functions
like recording and securing property rights and land boundary
rights remain legally unimproved under a deeds registration system.
The Hungarian Unified Land Registry System is the integration
of Cadastre and Legal Registry (Grundbuch) on legal basis and
institutional level and serves different purposes.
Legally guarantees the security of ownership and other rights
related to land and property in the same time supporting the land
market providing statistical data to the government and decision
makers for economic planning. The multipurpose nature of the Unified
Land Registry System is the basic information for external users
as local governments, banks, public utilities, lawyers, surveyors,
etc. The cadastral map is compulsory to use for spatial planning
and any land information system.
The Cadastral systems in India were designed initially to earn
revenue through collection of taxes on property. The cadastral
surveys are important because invariably these surveys are linked
with ownership of the property. The cadastral systems support
the legal ownership of the land, depiction of legal and topographical
aspects including area and parcel boundaries. Depiction of legal
& topographical aspects of the land becomes more important if
it pertain to urban/town property. Due to fast development activities,
the system plays important role in land administration activities
by policy makers, resource planners and administrators who make
decision about the land. They need detailed land information than
has been traditionally available.
As stated in Article 19 BAL (UUPA), to guarantee the juridical
assurance of land ownerships, the government conducts the land
registration that covers all the regions of the Republic on Indonesia
that consists of (a) surveying, mapping, and booking the lands;
(b) registration of titles and transfers of those titles; (c)
issuing the letter of evidence of land title that acknowledge
as the strong evidence. Afterwards, based on the Government Regulation
No. 24 Year 1997, the of land registration is defined as "the
sequence activities conducted by the government continuously and
regularly, consist of physical and legal data acquisition, processing,
registration, representation, and maintenance, in forms of maps
and registers of land parcels and strata title units, and issues
the certificate of titles and encumbrances.
The modern Israeli Cadastre is based on Torrens principles (Registration
of Titles) and it covers the following roles: legal (land transfer,
land market), fiscal (land valuation, taxation, assessment), and
multiple purpose role (land management, planning, land development,
local government and utilities management, emergency management
The Israeli cadastre is a juridical official register, shows
the de facto legal status of all parcels and properties in a state.
As far as legal property titles are concerned, the cadastre shows
their scope and the part of the surface to which they extend.
All relevant facts, such as location, area, use and parcel boundaries
Today, the cadastral information is a part of integrated information
systems and it improves the overall land management process. The
last two decades has seen moves to establish a complete computerized
cadastral information system.
The First Cadastre Project's objective is to develop a real estate
registration program which will provide:
- Property owners with security of ownership rights;
- commercial banks with the confidence necessary to give
secured credit against real estate;
- the real estate market with information on ownership and
location of property as needed for the market to function
- Government agencies and institutions with basic information
for urban planning and land management;
- The real estate market with information or property values;
- The private sector with opportunities to develop in areas
related to real estate registration.
In Iran the objective of the cadastral project is the creation
of a Legal Cadastre system at this time and consequently multipurpose
cadastral system in the future.
National Land Survey has been carried out under provisions in
laws mainly National Land Survey Law (Law No.180 of 1951) and
The Act on Special Measures for Promotion of National Land Survey
(Law No.143 of 1962). National Land Survey aims at improving basic
data concerning land of the whole country for more efficient and
reasonable land utilization through the scientific and comprehensive
survey of actual conditions of the national land and reforming
National Land Survey consists of 3 surveys; Cadastral Survey,
Land Classification Survey and Water Survey.
Cadastral survey is one of National Land Survey based on National
The cadastral system in Jordan has both, legal and fiscal role.
In addition to that the cadastral maps are used as the base for
land use planning, infrastructure planning and others, but the
cadastral system itself cannot be considered as multi-purpose
one even though this is the ultimate goal.
During the British administration little effort has been made
to survey registered freehold lands. This has created burden over
the Magistrate courts for settlement and adjudication of disputes
over boundaries. Loan institutions have emphasized the need for
proper defined and measured plots when such plots of land are
place for securities for loan. Likewise willing purchasers would
be hampered and reluctant to purchase and develop unmarked and
unmapped plots from registered owners.
Although land registers have been compiled for every island and
updated for every new transaction, the essential cadastral mapping
component that legally supported the ownership title over the
land has still largely ...
Korea (Rep. of):
The Korea cadastral system started for the financial purpose
and has been developed to the legal cadastral system in order
to protect ownership. Recently, as the development of industry
penetrates in all country and needs highly information on the
facility of land, the national geographic information system and
the cadastral information system working with an on line networking
system have to be connected in order to provide multi-purpose
Purpose of Latvian cadastre is to provide society with up-to-date
official information on all real properties in the Republic of
Latvia by registration and maintenance of it in a unified system.
Cadastral data are used for:
- corroboration of right to real properties;
- preparation of documents for transaction with real properties;
- use of real properties and planning of development;
- cadastral valuation;
- real property tax administration;
- planning of economical development of country, ...
The Real Property Cadastre and Register in Lithuania, including
cadastral map, is an integrated multipurpose system administered
by one institution. It secures the registered rights to real property;
supports lawful conveyance of real property; serves for fiscal
purpose, i.e. land taxation; it is also an instrument for national
real property policy and a supporting tool for real property and
credit market development in the country. Nowadays the real property
cadastre and register data are becoming more and more important
in other fields of public life including real property administration,
valuation, territory planning; fulfillment of municipal tasks,
the development of e-society and information infrastructure etc.
An increasing use of information by different market participants,
such as banks, notaries, real estate agencies, insurance companies,
citizens and other entities puts new demands on the quality of
data and easy access to information as well as on efficient dissemination.
The cadastres are based on the proprietary land parcel which
is the area defined by ownership. The cadastral system is the
legal basis for all dealings in land, such as planning, assessment,
The objects of the Malaysian cadastral system are to provide
security and simplicity to all dealings with land. It establishes
and certifies, under the authority of the Government, the ownership
of an indefeasible title to land and simplifies, hastens and cheapens
all land dealings. The title is conclusive proof that the person
mentioned therein is the owner of the land described therein.
Valid titles require an accurate description of boundaries and
as such cadastral survey plays an important role in the system.
Modern cadastres have seen the usefulness of cadastral information
not only as a fiscal instrument for tax collections, but also
as a valuable tool for urban planning, endowing of public services,
regulation of land tenure, human settlements, territorial limits
and urban land use. Therefore, it is considered as a multipurpose
At present, the main purpose for the cadastral system is fiscal,
followed by urban, legal, historic, socioeconomic and petroleum
Among other aims are urban development, planning, fiscal administration,
rural development, administration of natural resources and protection
||The primary function
of the Cadastral System in Namibia is to define (delineate and document)
ownership rights. According to the Constitution any land that has
not been transferred from the state to a juristic person remains
the property of the state. Any juristic person that has been granted
freehold rights is free to trade (transfer at market value) that
The cadastral system in Nepal basically commenced to collect
land revenue for the Government by identifying the landowners
and its tenants. Later on, Cadastral Survey was performed to support
land reform programme of the Government. The allocation of revenue
amount is based on the area and type of the parcel. The type of
the parcel is depending on the various facilities available as
indicated in Land Survey Rules and Regulations, 2058. Therefore,
Cadastral Survey was carried to identify the landowners, tenants
and to determine the types of land. Finally the Owner Certificate
is distributed to the concerned owners after fulfilling the necessary
formalities. The cadastral information, in the beginning were
mainly used only for fiscal purposes ...
The land registers and cadastre serve a multi purpose aim. First
of all the Civil Code prescribes 4 requirements for a legal transfer
of rights 'in rem', namely right of disposal of the seller, agreement
between buyer and seller, obligatory title, and recording in the
public registers hold by the Agency. The system of delivery is
'causal', which means that right holders have to secure their
ownership right ('title') from a theoretical legal point of view
in the chain of transfers. Because of the latin notariat, in practice
information from the most recent notarial deed suffices and gives
substantial evidence of ownership. The registers and cadastral
maps therefore guarantee in practice legal land tenure security,
and security in the land market. The same is valid for ...
The principal and historical purpose is for issue and transfer
of title to land, and the registration of interests relating to
The cadastral system also supports land valuation and land rating
systems and is used extensively for a range of government administration
and local authority planning, utility management. It forms a fundamental
layer in a number of GIS systems. Combined with street addressing
it is used for definition of electoral boundaries and for emergency
The Norwegian Cadastral system has a multipurpose role and is
used for a broad variety of tasks by governmental institutions
/ the public sector and private companies. Today the most important
matters are information for the land market and the planning activities
and municipal services.
The Cadastral Survey in the Philippines is a survey made of extensive
areas covering an entire municipality or city consisting of several
or many parcels of land undertaken for the purpose of title clearance
and land registration.
Cadastral Act 2259 which govern Cadastral Survey, is intended
primarily for the purpose of quieting title to any land within
a particular area by way of compulsory registration proceedings
and thus minimize land conflicts.
The owners of lots surveyed must lay claim to their land holdings
and must prove their ownership during the subsequent court proceedings
because failure on their part to do so may give the court no choice
but to declare these lands as public lands.
Agricultural development, realization of Municipal Land Use Plan
and more accurate Tax Mapping, are some of the benefits that may
result upon completion of the Cadastral Survey in the area.
The primary function of the Cadastral System in South Africa
is to define (delineate and document) ownership rights. Any land
that has not been transferred from the state to a juristic person
remains the property of the state. Any juristic person that has
been granted freehold rights is free to trade (transfer at market
value) that immovable property. Accurate delineation of the ownership
rights has enabled the development of a Cadastral Information
System, which forms the basis for land valuation; land taxation,
development planning, local authority demarcation and land administration.
Objective of the cadastral system introduced (as short-term project)
recently in Sri Lanka is to build the foundation for a long-term
land administration program in Sri Lanka which would encompass
the entire country in the next 15 to 25 years. In order to build
the foundation for this long-term program, the proposed system
would be implemented as a pilot learning and innovation program.
The objective of the long-term cadastral program would be to improve
the socio-economic and environmental conditions of the people
by increasing land tenure productivity. This increased productivity
is to be accomplished through a fully developed and functioning
system of land administration that is fair, efficient and sustainable.
Therefore, the objective of the proposed cadastral system would
be to assess and build the methods and techniques, and organizational,
legal and policy framework and capacity for making sustainable
and comprehensive improvements in the land administration system
in the long-run (parcel based cadastre, land titling and title
The cadastral system including the land information system has
the following purposes:
- Promote and control sustainable and efficient land use
- Provide land information for land titling, land use planning,
land taxation, environmental control and business development.
From 1912 until 1993, the cadastral system had purely a legal
purpose and was mainly geared for securing land ownership rights.
The cadastral surveying data have always widely been used as basis
for utility mapping and many sorts of municipal planning and management
Since 1993, in addition to the legal purpose, cadastral surveying
data (in digital form) are also to serve as basis for any land
Since around 2002, there is a growing need to document public
law restrictions and responsibilities; working groups have been
established to investigate their integration into the cadastral
system (compare Figure 2). ...
The original purpose of the cadastral system was legal. It has
now been modified to also include fiscal and multipurpose aspects.
See part 'A' on Country Context above for more.
Cadastral Surveying and Mapping (or the cadastre) is one of the
major components of a modern Cadastral System; the other components
being Land Registration and Titling, Physical and Environmental
Planning, and Land Administration, including Valuation. The cadastral
system operates within a framework of law and regulations.
The Land Act 1999 and the Village Land Act 1999 together provide
the basic law in relation to the management and administration
of land, settlement of disputes and related matters. All ministries,
public and private institutions whose functions are associated
with land development are required to work closely with the Ministry
of Lands to ensure efficient implementation of the national land
policy. Similarly Local Government Authorities are required to
cooperate with the Ministry to ensure proper land administration
in their respective jurisdiction.
Turkish cadastral systems based on the legal system. But land
taxation is also one of the purposes the system. The cadastre
in Turkey is to keep public registers for real estates, to make
and update cadastral registers and maps, to assist land related
projects and to make large scale topographical base map of the
Turkey. From this context the cadastre has also multipurpose role,
especially providing information for local land planning and development
A modern cadastral system in Uzbekistan was begun to be formed
in the middle of 1990-th because of the conversion to a market
economy. In the beginning it was mostly oriented for fiscal purposes,
meaning land registration for taxation. Later the Government has
taken some decisions in 1997 and 1998 and also the Law "About
State Cadastres" came into force in the year 2000. According to
this, the main objective of the cadastral system became real property
rights registration with the purpose to give guaranties from the
State and for the development of the property market. Operating
today, the cadastral system fulfils three basic purposes:
- For the registration of real property rights (registration
- For the recording and valuation of the property for taxation
- A geo-information system which combines legal, fiscal and
other information about property, necessary for the management,
planning and support of decision-making for many purposes (multi-purpose
La promulgación de la Ley de Geografía, Cartografía y Catastro
Nacional sentó las bases jurídicas para ejecutar un proceso estandarizado
de formación y conservación del catastro, en el cual la geodesia
y la cartografía son fundamentales para garantizar la ubicación
precisa de los inmuebles en el ámbito territorial municipal. La
gestión catastral apunta hacia la integración de un Sistema Nacional
de Catastro, cuyos componentes estarán vinculados de manera permanente,
para alimentar el inventario de la riqueza inmobiliaria del país,
lo cual permitirá garantizar la seguridad jurídica del régimen
de propiedad y ocupación de los inmuebles de un municipio, a través
de la vinculación con el Registro Inmobiliario. ...