As Argentina is a Federal Country there is a Provincial Cadastral
Organization in each province and in the Autonomous City of Buenos
The scope of the cadastral systems of the province has been mentioned
The multipurpose role of cadastre is complemented mainly by municipal
cadastres according to the provincial organization and development.
Historically a parallel system of land registration developed
for the mapping, surveying, management and administration of public
and private lands - Crown Lands administration and Land Registry
respectively. Through computerisation of all land data these two
mapping systems are undergoing integration to facilitate wider
land management and environmental planning. Today the aim is to
delegate one government agency with the responsibility of maintaining
an up-to-date cadastral map of all land parcels connected to the
land registration function, with land use management and administration
usually remaining with the custodians. The Australian cadastral
system supports legal land parcel identification of public and
private rights. Cadastral systems are not consistent across the
continent, as each of the 8 jurisdictions operates and maintains
their own form of cadastral system. This includes 8 variations
of the Torrens system, with the titling and registration differing
slightly in each jurisdiction.
Land register and cadastre are fully independent in organization,
personal and financial matters but they are unified in a common
data base. The digital "real estate database" ("Grundstücksdatenbank")
contains both the information from land book and the cadastral
register. Each land register office and cadastral office maintains
the data (within its jurisdiction in the data base. The technical
support of this central organized data base lies in the responsibility
of the Federal Office of Surveying and Metrology. All information
in the records is fully open to the public. There is an open access
to the information by using modern web based services. All land
book courts, cadastre offices, notaries, licensed surveyors, banks
and many others have online access to the database.
In Belgium there is only one cadastral system covering the complete
territory. But the national cadastral files are used by "The Agency
of the Inventory of the Property of the State", Wateringues, Polders,
Cadastral systems for the whole of Brunei is based on torren
systems and use lot number as the identifier. Two departments
are involved in cadastral i.e. Survey Departments providing the
technical aspects, surveys, mapping etc and Lands Department providing
the Registration, transfers etc.
Survey Department provides cadastral mapping e.g. Land Titles,
Plans, actual surveys e.g. fixing lots, subdivisions where all
lot boundaries are fixed with cadastral surveys (demarcations).
Since 1999 Strata Title Act was implemented and Brunei Survey
Department is the Authority to carry out survey, to produce plans
and Titles. The act was meant to monitor and control Strata Title
Survey and to safeguard everyone involved.
In Cambodia, there is only one cadastral system, a title registration
system, for the whole territory. Cambodian cadastral system supports
legal land parcel identification of public and private right.
There are problems with illegal settlements on state land such
as on road corridors, Waterways, National parks, forest etc.
Roughly we may distinguish two types of cadastral systems in
China, one recording only land parcel information, the other integrating
land and relevant house information together. As land ownership
in China is state-owned in city (identified as urban area) and
collection-owned in countryside (rural area), most cities have
established their cadastral systems for state-owned land, but
not so for collection-owned land. Besides, most systems in China
are digital with GIS technology.
The Cyprus cadastral system is one unified system valid for all
types of land including governmental land.
"The Cadastre of Real Estates of the Czech Republic" covers all
the territory of the state. No other cadastre dealing real estates
exists. There are a great amount of specialized or local (towns,
municipalities) information systems, but they all take over and
use data from the cadastre (because legally binding).
Problems with informal or illegal settlements are unknown.
There is only one type of cadastre covering the total territory
of Denmark. However, one may argue that the strata titles have
a separate status since they appear only in the land book as a
horizontal subdivision of the buildings on a property (land parcel)
that is identified in the cadastre.
There are three types of land in Fiji namely, Native, State and
Freehold lands. Native land is administered by the Native Land
Trust Board (NLTB), State land is administered by the Department
of Lands and Surveys, and Freehold land is looked after by the
Ministry of Justice.
However, land registration is all done by the Registrar of Titles
with the Ministry of Justice. On the other hand, any changes in
Native land ownership boundaries are dealt with by the Native
Land and Fisheries Commission (NLFC) of the Ministry of Fijian
The cadastre and the Native Land Commission (NLC) maps are the
responsibility of the Director of Lands and Surveyor General for
their safe keeping, updating and dissemination. Updated copies
are sent to the NLTB and NLFC or other government agencies when
From 1st of June 2005 there is one unified Cadastre for the whole
In Germany there exists only one type of cadastre covering the
complete territory with all kinds of landowners (private and state)
and all kinds of land use (urban, rural, forests etc.). There
are no cadastral problems with informal or illegal settlements.
Leasehold land grant under a deeds registration system is the
dominant cadastral mode in Hong Kong. It is claimed by the Land
Registry that nearly all properties are recorded in the land register.
There is only one type of Unified Land Registry System in Hungary.
All state, private, co-operative land and real estate properties
have been registered including condominium units (apartments).
In India, the basic unit of the cadastral record is the land
parcel, which is known as plot. The plots are registered in the
name of the owner defining plot boundaries. Maintenance of land
records with ownership; assessment of tax on the property and
collection of tax is the responsibility of district authorities.
The cadastral surveys are conducted periodically to locate and
demarcate land boundaries on ground and map and than to facilitate
management of land parcel information. Land records in India consist
of cadastral survey and mapping, recording cadastral information,
land evaluation and planning.
The cadastral system adopted in Indonesia is a registration of
titles with the negative system. As it is stated in Article 19
BAL, the certificate of land title is valid as the strong (not
positive or absolute) evidence. As long as it is otherwise inversely
proven by the court, then the certificate of land title is the
There is only one comprehensive cadastral system, a Title Registration
system, covering the whole territory of Israel. Two governmental
institutions are involved in cadastral system i.e. Survey of Israel
(SOI) providing the technical aspects, surveys, mapping etc and
the Land Registry Office providing the registration, transfers
The Survey of Israel (Ministry of Construction and Housing) is
responsible for cadastral mapping, as a part of an inter-ministry
procedure of documentation and registration of rights to land.
The responsibility for the inspection and the approval of Cadastral
Maps and Mutation Plans is shared by five district surveyors and
three civil servants acting at SOI central office.
The Land Registry Office (Ministry of Justice) is the governmental
institution, which has the responsibility for registration of
legal rights in real estate properties (land parcels and condominium
units). The scope of its activity is over the whole State of Israel
and it operates through its 12 regional offices.
Historically to distinguishing the ownership of properties a
conventional land registration system developed for the
semi accurate mapping, surveying, management and administration
of public and private lands. Through computerization of the abstract
of Deeds these two mapping systems must be integrated to facilitate
wider land management and environmental planning. Today the aim
is to distribute the activities of cadastral mapping through the
provinces with the responsibility of maintaining an updating within
provincial cadastral offices. The Economic Ministry also
supports fiscal cadastre and fulfil the all taxation activities
inside the country. There is urgent necessity to integrate these
three agencies (Ministry & Organization) and coordinates the activities.
There is only one cadastral system in Japan except the national
forest and public land. The Forestry Agency manages the national
forest in its own way, and the public lands are not usually registered
in the registry books.
The cadastral system is one for the whole country. Same laws
are applied for urban, rural, private owned land, state owned
land etc. Land rights are obtained by applying the same laws and
principles regardless of the location and use. However there are
some informal settlements occupying state owned land.
The judiciary that consist of the magistrate courts situated
on every island and the only High court in the capital Tarawa
is empowered to act as a Land registry office. It is through the
Magistrate courts that land transaction has to be heard and endorsed.
Subsequent new titles to land pursuant to the recorded court minutes
are then entered and the appropriate land register updated. Under
Kiribati law triplicate copies of the register have to be made.
The original copy held and undated by the respective island magistrate
court concerned, the second copy for the High court and the third
for the Land Management Division. This was in order to avoid fraud
and erroneous entries into the register.
The Land Management Division in 1998 has developed a computerized
Korea (Rep. of):
By the history of Korean cadastral system, the cadastral affairs
have been recognized as a national affaire. The administration
manages boundary and land category and the Ministry of Justice
is responsible for transfer and registration of ownership. Specially,
the government rules the land registration also. The land of ownership
is divided by 2 major use as public and private land and private
land have boundary and land use category by government. The surveying
activity is processed by the KCSC, which was nominated as an agency
to fulfill cadastral surveying on behalf of the government.
There is one unified real property cadastre system, covering
the total territory in Latvia. The system covers the total territory
regardless of ownership and land use.
There is no information available on illegal settlements in Cadastre.
Lithuania has one cadastral system covering the whole territory
of the country and it is an integrated Real Property Cadastre
and Register system. The system covers the urban and rural areas,
the privately and state owned property, the land, houses and apartments.
The system features comprehensive data on all specified real
property objects including all kinds of land uses (urban, rural,
protected areas, public places), inland water bodies, roads, buildings
(houses, apartments), engineering utilities, etc.; also provide
data on legal possession of real property objects, encumbrances
on the rights, servitude, mortgages and legal facts. There is
a direct link between the cadastral map and the real property
register. The real property cadastre and register system uses
the necessary information from other public registers and cadastres,
such as forestry cadastre, entrails cadastre, cadastre of protected
areas, register of cultural heritage and others.
The cadastral system practised in Macao covers the complete territory.
Not all the settlements are formal or legal but there is adverse
possession in Macao. A person may apply for adverse possession
for 20 years or above in accordance with the Land Law (Lei nº6/80/M).
Nowadays, there is no cadastral system covering the whole national
territory. Each federative entity has a very particular cadastral
system, with different purposes and areas, such as social, private
Namibia has inherited a dualistic land tenure system. Roughly
half of the total land area is held under freehold title, while
the remainder is commonly referred to as "communal" land. The
category "communal" land subsumes a number of different land tenure
systems ranging from individual rights to residential and arable
land to communal rights to grazing. Until recently, all communal
land - whether rural or urban - shared one important characteristic:
it could not be held under freehold title. As a result "communal"
land could not be sold or mortgaged.
It is important to point out that until the early 1980s, black
Namibians could not obtain title to any land, whether urban or
rural, communal ...
A parcel is a property and is defined by the act. The classification
of parcels is also carried out as per the guidelines given in
the Rules and regulations of Land Survey 1999 as rural and urban
parcels. For the land administration the following land types
are defined namely: public land, Government land, Forestland,
Private land, barren land. The assets in the parcel are also included
in the property. There are no different types of cadastre for
In Nepal, registration of deeds system is being applied in which
the responsibility in land transaction is solely depends on the
landowners and there is no liability to the Government side, if
there exists any discrepancies in the parcel. In deed, the illegal
or informal settlements create problems, but there is no any provision
to be settled by act. This is the burden of the government to
remove them from the encroachment but some times the cabinet forms
high level commission to distribute the land which is not legal
In the Netherlands there exists one single land registry and
cadastre. It comprises all lands, and all territorial waters,
whoever is the owner. The State owns land, of course, however
from a point of view of the civil code the State is an owner like
anybody else. Also the rules for transfer etc. apply to the State,
except for paying land taxes. There does not exist something as
There are no problems with informal and illegal settlements.
A single cadastral survey system supports five different tenure
- Land Transfer or private land
- Maori Land, usually multiply owned.
- Crown land encompassing:
- unalienated Crown Land
- Crown Leasehold
- National Parks and Reserves
- Government purposes
- Deeds - there is a very small residue of land in the Deeds
- Mining Licences - generally overlaying any or all of the
The cadastral survey system and the Land Transfer and Crown Land
(unalienated and some leased) is administered by LINZ. The Maori
Land Court administers Maori Land.
The Norwegian Cadastre is fully computerized as a central database
under the control of the Norwegian Mapping and Cadastre Authority.
The cadastral maps however, are currently held at local level
There are two (2) types of Cadastral System in the Philippines,
one is Graphical Cadastre (Fig. 1) and the other is Numerical
or Regular Cadastre (Fig. 2).
These two (2) systems can be executed either by ground method
or by aerial photogrammetry. Basically, numerical cadastre is
associated with surveying while graphical cadastre, with mapping.
While the Numerical Cadastre produces bearings and distances
of boundary lines of lots with the area up to the hundredths of
a meter (derived from computations), the graphical cadastre simply
gives the shapes of the lots with the distances of the boundary
lines derived from scaling the lines on the maps and the area
determined by scaling or planimeter or by templates.
The Graphical Cadastre was discontinued in favor of the more
accurate Numerical Cadastre.
- Freehold Ownership: gives the owner the greatest rights
- Leasehold Ownership: A lease is contract whereby land
is let to ...
- Servitude: A registered right vested in a person,
who thereby ...
- Sub-surface Rights: The rights to any minerals on
a property may ...
- Sectional Title Unit: Sectional title schemes were
created to enable ...
- Permission to Occupy: During the apartheid era, it
was unlawful for ...
- Deeds of Grant: Some towns were laid out on state
or municipally ...
In the existing system (except the areas declared under the New
Act), Government Agent is the custodian of state land in the District
and a variety of registers under different statutory provisions
are maintained by him. The plans in respect of state lands are
prepared by the Survey Department. Records pertaining to proceedings
under the partition Act and those for declaration of title is
filed in the courts. Records pertaining to the Registration of
Deeds (and the areas surveyed under the act passed in 1877) are
maintained in the Land Registries under the Registrar General.
The system under Act 21 of 1998 for registration of Title to land,
now it is being implemented for three areas support legal land
parcel identification of public and private rights. Further, all
parcel information will be computerized. Through computerization
of all land data, the system is undergoing integration to facilitate
wider land management and environmental planning. Today the aim
is to delegate with the responsibility of maintaining an up-to
date cadastral map of all land parcels connected to the land registration
function, with land use management and administration.
From previous situation with different system for urban and rural
areas, the system is today one unified system valid for all types
of land, also governmental.
There is only one comprehensive cadastral system, which by definition
of land parcels covers the whole territory in a complete way.
Every piece of land is a parcel with an assigned owner. Roads
or public areas can for example be in the ownership of municipalities,
Cantons, or Federal organizations. Also private companies or cooperations
can be owners of land parcels.
Cadastral surveys are carried out in urban and rural areas. Most
cadastral activities are done in the urban areas. In either case
the surveys and parcel registrations are largely sporadic. Cadastral
surveys are carried out in conformity with the Land Survey Ordinance
of 1956 and the Survey Regulations of 1959. Most cadastral surveys
in urban areas are carried out on the basis of approved Town Planning
layouts. Cadastral surveys in informal urban settlements and in
the rural areas are carried out following already established
boundaries, i.e. as settled.
About 70% of urban dwellers live in informal settlements that
have not been planned and surveyed. This is a great concern for
the government. Measures are currently (2005) being taken to formalize
them following adoption of the de Soto program in Tanzania in
In Turkey, the cadastre covers both urban and rural areas entirely.
Demarcation of forest areas are realized by Forest Cadastre Commission
only. Both private and state land ownership is been in land. On
the other hand, there are a lot of problems with informal or illegal
settlements. Especially in big cities and the areas where the
state land ownerships are been intensively, informal or illegal
settlements could be arisen to 50%.
According to the Law "About State Cadastres", there are about
20 cadastres being created in Uzbekistan: land cadastre, cadastre
of buildings and constructions, water cadastre, forest cadastre,
cadastre of mineral resources and more. The basic cadastre is
the land cadastre, which realises the functions of recording,
valuation and land plots rights registration.
At the same time, the multi-purpose cadastre of the territory
is created by Uzgeodescadastre. This means a geo-information system
named the Uniform System of State Cadastres (USSC).
Existe un solo Sistema Nacional de Catastro, en el cual se integrará
la información inmobiliaria levantada por cada municipio en su
ámbito territorial, bajo la rectoría del IGVSB. El nuevo enfoque
abarca de manera conjunta el levantamiento catastral de los inmuebles
urbanos y de los predios rurales. Las bases de datos catastrales
y las que se generen de las actividades de registro público conformarán
un sistema integrado.
En el caso de los asentamientos espontáneos urbanos populares,
en la actualidad son objeto de un proceso de levantamiento catastral
que, con la debida coordinación interinstitucional y bajo la premisa
de la promulgación de una Ley Especial de Regularización de la
Tierra en los Asentamientos Urbanos Populares, permitirá acometer
la regularización de la tenencia de las tierras.