Description of the cadastral concept, i.e. what are the main units
in your cadastral system that are surveyed and registered, and on
what level (national or state level). This may include the description
of terms such as land parcel, ownership units, properties, qualified
titles, buildings, etc. as well as their meaning and their relation
to one another.
The concept of Cadastre in Argentina can be considered equivalent
to the definition given by (FIG, 1995).
Cadastral systems in Australia are operated by the 8 state administrations
and operate in such a way that land parcels are surveyed in the
field while the corresponding land ownership titles are recorded
in the Land Registry. The Land Registry uniquely identifies each
parcel corresponding to the title. The relationship between these
two main units is usually a 1:1-relationship, i.e. each land parcel
is usually related to one land ownership entry in the land registry.
The term "property" is used by the local councils and utilities,
which maintain property records for their own planning and tax
purposes. A property has one street address and usually one house,
but can consist of one or many ...
A plot of land (parcel) shall be the part of a cadastral
community referred to as such with an individual number in the
cadastre of boundary lines or the property tax cadastre.
Cadastral communities shall be those parts of the surface of
the earth explicitly registered as such in the cadastre of boundary
lines or the property tax cadastre.
Therefore a plot of land is a part of the surface of the earth
with an individual number.
Real Estate: land and any things attached to the land
including buildings, apartments and other construction.
The main unit in the cadastral system of Belgium is the cadastral
parcel (national level). The files of the owners, the files of
the parcels and the cadastral register are relation to one another.
Cadastral system in Cambodia is operated by the district offices
of the Ministry of Land Management, Urban Planning and Construction
and operate in such a way that land parcels are surveyed and adjudicated
(investigated) in the field and then corresponding land ownership
are recorded in the land registry. The land registry is kept and
maintained in three levels: national (General department of Cadastre
and Geography), provincial and district. The smallest unit in
land registry is land parcel. A land parcel or cadastral unit
is a specified land area that is situated within a single commune
or sangkat, that is not divided by a joint, indivisible boundary,
[that] belongs to one person or several persons having an undivided
ownership, and that is used in a single manner.
In 2000 a Sub-decree on systematic land registration has been
approved, which makes land registration obligatory commune by
commune. The sporadic land registration will still be applied
until the total of the country is registered.
A cadastre is the core or basis of a land administration system
and is normally a parcel-based and up-to-date land information
system containing records of base information (e.g. location,
area and use) and interests in land (e.g. rights, restrictions
and responsibilities). A cadastral parcel, the basic block in
Chinese land administration system, is usually recorded in geographical
coordinates. As the cadastre, managed by the government, has force
adeffect and present status about land, additional information
is often stored, such as land tenure, ownership, leasehold, easements,
mortgages and different types of common, communal or customary
land tenure. Title registration is commonly incorporated into
The cadastral system in Cyprus is operated in such a way that
land parcels are surveyed in the field while the corresponding
land ownership titles are recorded in the Land Registry. The Land
Registry uniquely identifies each parcel corresponding to the
title. The basic unit of the cadastral system is the "immovable
property". Buildings, flats, wells and other immovable properties
are also registered and related to land parcels.
The main unit in the cadastral system is a parcel.
A parcel is defined in law as a piece of land delimited by its
boundaries and represented in a cadastral map. Every parcel has
its unique parcel number within so called "cadastral unit". Buildings
with yards are usually individual parcels.
Cadastral unit is an area of original municipality
delimited by its boundaries and represented in cadastral map.
The first cadastral mapping was done and documentation was arranged
within this units. Every cadastral unit has its unique name (usually
the name of village or town). Bigger towns usually consist of
more than one cadastral unit.
Property consists usually of several parcels (e.g.
house and garden). Since the object of registration is a parcel,
not a property as a whole, a property is registered as a set of
The Cadastral System in Denmark is organised as follows:
- The cadastral register identifies real properties - which
might include more than one parcel - by cadastral number(s)
- The cadastral map shows all land parcels graphically;
- Legal survey measurements are used to precisely identify
all new parcel boundaries determined by cadastral surveys such
as subdivision, etc.; and
- The Land Book identifies the legal rights based on the cadastral
The term "property" is a legal term defined in the cadastral
act to include one or more land parcels as determined in the cadastral
register. The ...
Land parcels, whether in Native, State or Freehold land, are
surveyed in the field and survey plans are submitted to the Department
of Lands and Surveys for checking in accordance with Survey Regulations
and conditions of the local councils and the Town and Country
Planning. This is done by the Department of Lands and Surveys.
Only when a survey plan is approved as to survey, leases are registered
accordingly. The legal descriptions of each parcel are recorded
in the corresponding title usually in a 1:1 basis. It is possible
that two or more abutting parcels belong to one person.
Buildings are part of the property record which is kept by the
Local Councils and the Director of Town and Country Planning.
It is unfortunate that Fiji does not have a Rural Addressing
System and it has been a concern to a number of Government and
non-government agencies such Ministry of Health, TelecomFiji and
the Fiji Electricity Authority and local banks. Street addressing
system in urban areas are well defined.
In Finland all land is divided into basic property units that
are the register units in the Cadastre. These property units consist
of one or more parcels and they may also have a share in common
areas. All the basic property units are surveyed and registered
in the nationwide Land Information System that includes also a
cadastral index map and information about titles and mortgages.
Objects that are permanently fixed to a parcel (for example buildings)
are part of it. The apartments in condominiums are not fixed property
and they are registered by the condominiums.
The land register is characterised by two important legal
- Changes of rights to land do not take effect before being
registered in the land register.
- Until otherwise proven, the correctness of all titles recorded
on the register is assumed. The land register enjoys the "public
faith", in other words, the details registered may be presumed
correct by anyone acquiring a legal title with regard to property
unless an appeal against the correctness is recorded or the
person acquiring the title is aware of the entry being incorrect.
Registrations therefore play an important legal role. They are
in force ...
Hong Kong has only a deeds registration law. The land register
serves as an identifier of registered landowners. Building units
are registered as an exclusive use right attached to an undivided
share of the land. Other land rights as well as boundary rights
have to be traced back to the original land grant document.
Adverse possession is allowed. To acquire a title by adverse
possession under the Limitation Ordinance, it takes 12 years for
private lots and 60 years for government land.
In the Hungarian Unified Land Registry System two different types
of real properties can be registered:
1) land parcel;
2) other independent property.
All types of properties have a unique identity number and are
1) land parcel can include buildings the owner(s) of the land
is the same as the building;
2) there are three different types of other independent property:
a) building, cellar, underground garage, structure, if the
Cadastral system in India relating to land and land dispute comes
under the charge of Tahsildar, Kanoongo and Patwari (Lekhpal).
Each district is divided into tahsils and every tahsil comprises
of pargana and villages. The classification of agricultural land,
its measurements, the assessment and its produced are properly
maintained in the land record register.
The number of land parcels registered and titled is 24.5 million
land parcels out of the number of 84.5 million land parcels all
over the Indonesian territory (including forest areas). Among
the 24.5 million land parcels, they are still paper based maps
and databases (non digitized) and also still broadly loosely-connected
The modern Israeli Cadastre was based on Torrens principles (Registration
of Titles). The main unit in the cadastral system of Israel is
the cadastral parcel. About 21,000 square km of the registered
area (5% of the area is not registered yet) are divided into some
15,000-registration blocks, and 800,000 parcels. The cadastral
systems in Israel are operated by two governmental institutions
i.e. Survey of Israel and the land registry office.
Land parcels are surveyed in the field while the corresponding
land ownership titles are recorded in the Land Registry. Two different
types of real properties can be registered: land parcel and apartment
in condominium. All types of real properties have a unique identity
number and are registered separately.
The Land Registry uniquely identifies each parcel corresponding
Cadastral systems in Iran are operated by the 11 state offices
and operate in such a way that land parcels are surveyed in the
field while the corresponding land ownership titles are recorded
in the Land Registry. The Land Registry uniquely identifies each
parcel corresponding to the title if the property has formal deed.
The relationship between these two main units is usually a 1:1-relationship,
i.e. each land parcel is usually related to one land ownership
entry in the land registry.
The taxation and legal aspects are doing in parallel ways. Nowadays
in Iran we are trying to have one street address for each property
within the cities and each property usually has one or more houses
or apartments. On ...
Cadastral Survey is conducted by local public body like municipalities.
The land parcel is the main unit, and the followings are surveyed;
owner, parcel number, type of land, boundary and the dimension
for every parcel of land.
The cadastral concept in Jordan is based on the unity and integration
of both the land registration (land title) and the cadastral surveying
(maps). The main units of cadastral system are land parcels as
show in the first scenario and it's surveyed and registered on
a national level.
Pursuant to the Native Lands Ordinance all customary freehold
titles over land has to be registered. The registers records preceding
and current owner/s of the plot. Transfer of title over freehold
land is reflected in the register with references to the court
number where the transfer was endorsed. Ownership over a plot
of land, usually narrow strips of land parcels that extends the
width of the island from the ocean leeward side to the lagoon,
would be registered as a multiple family ownership or as single
ownership. Fragmentation of these initial strips could occur when
a family member may decide to portion out his share for sale.
All plots and further subdivisions were allocated unique plot
numbers in the register.
The recent review on relevant Acts and Ordinances ensure that
the registered title over a plot would be referenced to the survey
plan prepared by LMD. The plan of the plot would be identified
with the same unique plot number allocated and would show all
physical dimensions of the plot and other relevant survey information.
Korea (Rep. of):
The cadastre is an administrative system, which notifies physical
status of all parcels of national lands and legal rights on them,
and manages changes of details of land.
The Korean cadastre has three ideas, those are management of
ownership, the registration system, and public open service of
the cadastral information registering owner and relevant records.
The Korea cadastral system is created by surveying on the parcel
boundary and ownership nation-wide and registering it. All parcel
shave a identity number, divided by a sheet system which have
a unique map scale and managed by area.
In Cadastre of Latvia, the smallest uniquely identified and surveyed
unit is land parcel that is defined as delimited piece of land
registered in the National Real Estate Cadastre Information System
having cadastral designation assigned to it. Likewise as land
parcels, also buildings and groups of premises are surveyed, identified
and registered in cadastre. Also real properties that are defined
as land with buildings and waters lying thereon that is juridically
attached to natural or juridical person are registered in cadastre.
Rights to real properties are registered in Land Register.
In Latvia, real property is recorded in Land Register regardless
of number of parcels. In practice, scenario (i) of scenarios ...
The cadastral system of Lithuania is based on surveyed land parceling
and records graphical and attribute data pertaining to real properties.
Main unit within the real property cadastre and register, that
is surveyed and registered, is a real property object. Real property
object means land parcel and other properties that are related
to land (buildings, premises, flats, engineering facilities, and
other properties, which are intended to serve and to be used as
immovable property). Only formed and surveyed real property object
may be recorded in the Real Property Cadastre and Register, and
only registered property may be transacted. Data on surveying
of the real property object and other cadastral data are recorded
in the Real Property Cadastre ...
The land parcels are surveyed in the field by Cartography and
Cadastre Bureau. Because the registration of land ownership is
optional, Macao Cartography and Cadastre Bureau also takes the
responsibility of collecting legal rights information such as
land ownership, land grant document, lease term, etc.
The Malaysian cadastral system has essentially two basic components,
which are the very pillars of the system's reliability and credibility,
i.e. the land registration and the cadastral survey components.
The most important element in the land registration component
is the type of title called for by the system of land tenure and
the nature of Government guarantee. The system provides for registration
to confer indefeasible title or interest, except in certain circumstances,
such as through fraud or misrepresentation or registration obtained
by forgery or by means of an insufficient or void instrument.
Essentially, for alienation under final title, it only becomes
effective from the time of the registration of the Register ...
Historically, the cadastre has been defined as the inventory,
census or record of real estate, up to a more common meaning such
as the record of farms, of their values and of their proprietors,
initially established only for fiscal purposes, with no representation
The concept of cadastre and its objectives have evolved through
time, and now it is understood as a system of territorial information
related to the real estate, whose main purpose is to obtain a
census of the physical, qualitative, legal, fiscal and administrative
features of the properties so allowing a multipurpose use.
The Cadastral system in Namibia is organised as follows:
- the cadastral index register identifies the properties by
cadastral number(s) and area;
- the noting plans shows the land parcels graphically;
- the diagram (one parcel) or general plan (two or more parcels)
shows the legal survey measurements to precisely identify all
new parcels determined by cadastral surveys such as subdivisions;
- the Deeds Registry identifies the legal rights based on the
The Directorate of Survey and Mapping in Windhoek examines and
approves all diagrams and general plans prior to them being registered
in a Deeds Registry.
Cadastral system in Nepal is treated as part of the land administration
process and does exist district-wise. In general, cadastral mapping,
preparation of related document and the registration of the parcel
are performed by the Goswara (survey party), Cadastral Survey
Branch, Survey Department. After completion of the Survey, the
cadastral maps and field books are handed over to the district
Survey Office and the related textual documents (Sresthas) are
handed over to District Land Revenue Office of Department of Land
Reform and Management.
The Survey Office updates the maps as per the decision made by
the Land Revenue Office. The instructions to Survey Office will
be as per the demand from the concerned landowner during land
transaction and land fragmentation. The Land Revenue Office will
update the textual document. Whereas, if the transaction of a
parcel is from one owner to another without being change in the
status, there will be no information to the Survey Office, which
at present felt that the document in the Survey Office also need
to be updated accordingly in such situation.
The main concept of the system of land registry and cadastre
is the recording of the relationship between men and land, through
a formal right. The concept includes the principles of specialty
and publicity. The specialty principle results in a proper identification
of the right holders through personal identification at the notary
office and the recording of ID numbers, or in case of a legal
body (e.g. a company) identification of ID number Chamber of Commerce
and the legal representatives of the company. Furthermore it impacts
on the object of exercise of rights: the land parcel, that should
be uniquely identified by parcel number and boundary survey. The
right as such should be legally recognised, namely belonging to
the closed system of real rights as mentioned in ...
The principal unit is a surveyed and monumented parcel, with
description and area, with titles or other tenures recorded accordingly.
There is also provision for strata titles, leases and easements.
While title is guaranteed there are some provisions for adverse
possession where there is longstanding and undisputed possession.
There are three main units of the Norwegian cadastral system:
Information about Parcels, addresses and buildings. The parcel
unit comprises property number, area of surface, land use, owners
name / identification and postal address, coordinates for a reference
point, reference to cadastral map sheet and cross-reference to
buildings and addresses. The address information comprises street
name and house number, district codes, reference point and cross-reference.
The building information comprises building identification number,
type / use, number of floors, numbers and data about each flat
(including identifier), reference point and cross-reference.
The primary objective of the cadastral survey is land titling.
Any land use information that are obtained in the process are
gathered not for economic development purposes as we perceive
them to be at present but for additional information in support
of tenure or legal hold.
Every parcel of lot in the coverage area of a cadastral survey
project is assigned a lot number which shall be done consecutively
from one and without duplication. An assigned lot number in one
barangay (barrio) cannot be assigned to a certain lot in another
barangay (barrio) of the coverage municipality.
The project is divided into cases. The procedure is, one case
There is a Surveyor-General in Pretoria, Cape Town, Bloemfontein
and Pietermaritzburg. The 9 Provinces have been divided between
the 4 Surveyors-General. Each Surveyor-General is more or less
autonomous within his or her area of jurisdiction. The principal
functions of each Surveyor-General is (with the help of his staff
- Examine and approve diagrams, general plans and sectional
title plans that are lodged for approval by an accredited Land
Surveyor prior to them being registered in a Deeds Registry.
(Note that the accredited Land Surveyors are either in private
practice, or in other state departments. No employee in the
Office of the Surveyor-General may perform cadastral ...
In Sri Lanka Survey Department should continue to be the organization
responsible for cadastral information. This organization should
also collect additional information required on such subjects
as land use and buildings on the surveyed parcels. Survey Department
has today the responsibility to maintain the cadastral records
of state land, but do not have sufficient information about private
land. There is a need to make required alteration in existing
legislation so that all land parcels will be recorded in a property
register. There should also be an office responsible for keeping
information about legal rights in land. At present legal rights
regarding land matters are registered in an office called District
Land Registry, which also register births, marriages, deaths etc.
Ideally the registration and survey functions mentioned above
should be performed by a single agency. Such an arrangement would
guarantee the best co-ordination between the two parts involved
in the whole operation. The solution would be to separate the
section within Land Registry dealing only with land matters and
bring it under the Ministry of Lands. Then it would be possible
to amalgamate it administratively with Survey Department.
According to the Swedish Land Code, all land is divided into
real properties. The extension of each real property is defined
by the description in the Real Property Registry. A real property
unit can consist of one or many land parcels, water parcels or
specific rights like hunting, fishing, or from 1st January 2004,
a defined room in the space like an apartment in a building or
an underground pipeline. Objects permanently fixed to a piece
of land or a construction are belongings to the real property
The cadastral system is based on a folio principle, i.e. each
"land parcel" on the ground is related to exactly one ownership
title registered in the land registry. Every land parcel has a
unique parcel identifier number, to which all parcel-relevant
information is linked. Buildings are by definition integral parts
of "land parcels" and by default cannot cross parcel boundaries.
In the case of a building sitting on top of a parcel boundary,
the boundary would need to be rectified accordingly or the two
parcels would need to be merged. Land parcels can be sold only
as complete entities. If only a part of a parcel is to be sold,
it has to go through a subdivision process by first creating a
new parcel, where the new boundary is delimited by a predefined
cadastral survey process.
The main unit in the cadastral system is the plot/parcel. It
is the plot that is registered.
The main unit is a land parcel and a registration book which
linked by a unique land parcel ID. Each village in cadastral region
and each quarter in municipality border is cadastral working area.
Cadastral working area divided by blocks surrounded by natural
or artificial border such as road, way, highway, railway, arc,
lake, sea. After measurements and circumscription of parcel completed,
property ownership is determined. Documentation such as tax and
title deed information is useful to indicate and determine owner
ship. Also cadastre directorship considers explanation of head
official of village or quarter, and expert witnesses by using
rules of the cadastral codes. While determination of ownership,
minutes of real property is prepared. All parcels boundaries ...
Article 3 of Law "About State Land Cadastre":
"State land cadastre is the main component of the Uniform System
of State Cadastres and in a system of information and documents
on natural, economic, legal type of lands, their categories, quality
characteristics and value, location and size of land parcels,
distribution of them among owners, possessors and users.
State land cadastre includes: state registration of rights to
land plots, lands quality and quantity accounting, appraisal of
soil, lands cost, and also systematization, holding and renewal
of land-cadastral information." Ownership and other rights to
land plots, easements, limitations, transferring and cessation
of rights are liable for registration. Registration of rights
to buildings and constructions are realised in the cadastre of
building and constructions. The cadastre of building and constructions
together with land cadastre form real property cadastre system.
El catastro es definido como una herramienta para procurar y
garantizar la ordenación del espacio geográfico con fines de desarrollo,
a través de la adecuada, precisa y oportuna definición de los
tres aspectos más relevantes de la propiedad inmobiliaria: descripción
física, situación jurídica y valor económico.
La Ley de Geografía, Cartografía y Catastro Nacional ordena la
investigación y determinación de las tierras baldías, los ejidos,
las tierras pertenecientes a entidades públicas y las tierras
de propiedad particular o colectiva, dentro del contexto del territorio
de cada municipio.
De acuerdo al Código Civil vigente, la propiedad se define como
el derecho de usar, gozar y disponer de un inmueble de manera
exclusiva con las restricciones y obligaciones de la Ley. La parcela,
definida como la porción de terreno, con construcción o no, delimitada
por una poligonal cerrada, ubicada dentro de un mismo municipio,
es considerada la unidad catastral por excelencia.