Cadastral Template - Field Data C4

C. Cadastral System

This page was last updated on 8 Sep. 2009
  C4. Content of Cadastral System  
 
  Description of the basic cadastral components, or what kind of registers are operated and maintained in your system (e.g. land book, land register, parcel register, cadastral survey, etc.), and what is their information content and level of computerization. Please note that the content of the cadastral map is being covered below in topic D.
Country  
Argentina:

Parcel is the common registration unit for cadastres in Argentina.

It is all land parcel division, unification, amalgamation, etc. must be registered in the cadastral organization. Also horizontal property units are registered.

Australia:

Australian Cadastral systems typically comprise the following components:

  • Textual Component - the land register identifies real property parcels, which includes all land parcels and identifies owners' rights, restrictions, and responsibilities, ownership, easements, mortgages etc.
  • Spatial Component - Cadastral maps show all land parcels graphically corresponding to the registered title with plan numbers and unique identifiers. These are all now digitised. Cadastral maps consist of fixed and general boundaries, about 90% and 10% respectively:
    • Fixed boundaries are those with legally surveyed measurements used to precisely identify most parcel boundaries determined ...
Austria:

Basic register units and attributes

The Real Estate Database (Grundstücksdatenbank - GDB) contains data from the Cadastre as well as from the Land Book.

Basic register units

  • cadastral unit identifier (Katastralgemeinde) - KG-Nr
  • parcel identifier (Grundstücksnummer) - GSt-Nr
  • docket number of the application at the district court (Tagebuchzahl) - TZ
  • authorized district land register court (Grundbuchsgericht)
  • register unit identifier (Einlagezahl) - EZ

Cadastre attributes

  • Area of parcel (Flächenausmass) - FLÄCHE
  • Address of parcel (Grundstücksadresse) - GST-ADR ...
Belgium:

Refer to "Cadastral Concept" and Topic D.

Brunei:

Total number of Cadastral lots in Brunei is just over 68,000, these are mostly privately owned lots, and a number of lots occupied by government departments. The plots have been completely digitised and supported by field notes and Survey Plans.

Cambodia:

Cambodia cadastral system comprise the following components:

  • Textual Component - the land register shows, according to each parcel number of ownership, the name of owners and the means of identification of such land parcels, the description of the ownership, the size of land parcel, the easements and other charges that encumber it and the history of the parcel.
  • Spatial component - Cadastral index maps show all land parcels graphically corresponding to the registered parcel with unique identifier. The cadastral index maps exist only for the areas where systematic land registration is implemented.

Out of the estimated 7 million parcels, the cadastre covers ...

China:

Since 1978, China has transformed its planned economy system into a socialist market economy system. The land ownership is vested in the whole people, the citizens are entitled to land use rights. Each household farms on individual parcels of land by collective ownership in rural area. A new system of land management has been established based on cadastral survey and land registration since the Law of Land Administration was issued in 1986. Then the Regulations on Cadastral Surveying and Mapping, the Cadastre Map Format, and the Manual on Cadastral Surveying and Mapping are also issued. The initial cadastral investigation and land registration were conducted in most cities of the country in 1990s. Land use inventory was partially ...

Cyprus:

The cadastral system maintains the Land Register in which the immovable property is recorded. In the Land Registry the ownership of the property is kept as well as other information including the value of the property, restrictions, mortgages and encumbrances. Approximately 75% of the land registry data has been computerized.

Czech Republic:

The present cadastre covers in one complex tool land cadastre (parcels with detailed information about types and areas of plots, building numbers, land use, tax information, selected information about preservation, etc.) and land registry (with detailed information about titles and other rights, owners and their identifiers and addresses).

The cadastre consists of descriptive information file, geodetic information files (cadastral maps and their digital data, if any), survey documentation, collection of deeds, and summary surveys of the land fund.

The descriptive information file is fully computerized (100%), the geodetic information file (cadastral maps) are under digitization (about 25% completed).

The cadastre co-operates with several other public registers, e.g. with the Register of Citizens (ID numbers and addresses of natural persons) and the Register of Economic Subjects (ID numbers, and addresses of legal persons).

Denmark:

The cadastre covers the total of about 2.5 million land parcels representing about 1.5 million properties. It consists of a parcel register (parcel/cadastral number, area, identification of the properties consisting of more than one parcel, and obligations concerning farming and forestry); country wide digital cadastral maps; a register of control points (about 360,000 points); and an archive of the legal survey measurements (about one million sheets) and the old analogue cadastral maps (about 15,000 sheets). The cadastre is updated daily. Both the cadastral register and the cadastral maps are computerised, and the cadastral information is available on the web.

The Land Book records legal rights in land such as ownership ...

Fiji:

The Fijian Cadastral System is made up of the following:

  • Textual component - includes legal description of each property parcel, lot and plan number, area, land name, district, province, owners rights, restrictions, easements, mortgages, etc.
  • Spatial component - derived from approved survey plans that show legal boundaries and in some cases un-surveyed boundaries such as formed roads. Cadastral maps show all land parcels or lots that correspond to the registered titles with plan numbers and other attributes such as parcel area. New survey plans are charted onto the cadastral map by coordinates, thus the updating of cadastral maps is a ...
Finland:

The Land Information System consists of:

  • the Land Register (registration of ownership, mortgages and special rights)
  • the Cadastre (registration of basic property units, unseparated areas, servitudes and extent of areal plans)

The cadastral identifiers can serve as links to:

  • the Building Register (buildings and flats),
  • the Population Register (residents in the buildings), part of the population information system,
  • the fiscal registers of the tax authorities.

All the above mentioned systems are 100% computerized.

Germany:

Rights on land being able to register in the land register are:

  • ownership,
  • share-ownership of a property,
  • ownership of a building without ownership of the land (long term lease),
  • full ownership of an apartment in combination with part-ownership to the land,
  • easements as a limited right for an owner of one parcel to use or prevent use of some kind of a neighbouring parcel. The right is connected to a parcel, like rights-of-ways,
  • easement as a limited right for a person or the community ...
Hong Kong:

The document kept by the Land Registry, including the register, memorial, government lease and land grant document, are the basic legal textual components. The land register and memorial are kept in database and lease documents are stored in scanned images. Other government departments keep land related data without direct cadastre related law prescription. Survey and Mapping Office keeps the graphic components of a cadastre. The correlated land boundary layers and the detailed mapping layers form the computerized database covering all 3100 sheets of 1:1000 large scale maps in Hong Kong. Planning Department keeps the land use designation data. Rating and Valuation Department keeps the property valuation data.

Hungary:

All land parcels and real properties have been registered in Hungary and cadastral maps cover the whole country. There are 7,3 million land parcels and about 2 million other independent properties (condominium units and others).

There are two components of the Unified Land Registry System to be maintained:

1) Legal part - property sheets: Each land parcels and other independent properties have property sheet containing three parts:
I. Descriptive part: Parcel number, address of the property, area, status of the property (urban, rural, built in or vacant) building information ...

India:

Cadastral system is built upon the 'cadastre'. The cadastre is a parcel based and up to date land information system. The record consisting of:
a. Record of ownership and
b. Map of land parcels linked to other records describing the nature of the rights or interest in the respective parcels.

The cadastre is managed by the state government. Generation and maintenance of the cadastral records is different in different states.

Indonesia:

Indonesia's cadastral system typically comprise of the following components:

  • Physical data:
    • Textual components: the land register identifies land parcel data and information which includes owners' name, address, and other identities and attributes, neighborhoods, and other related information;
    • Spatial components: the cadastral maps show all land parcels graphically corresponding to the registered title (textual and juridical components) with unique parcel identifiers (NIB) and number of map sheets.
  • Juridical data: the land register identifies land parcel data and information which includes owners' rights, restrictions, durations, responsibilities, kinds of legal documents and legal proofs, and other legal related data.
Israel:

The cadastre is a parcel based and up to date land information system and is managed by two governmental institutions. The cadastral system consisting of:

  • Record of ownership (land books and condominiums registers) managed by the land registry office. Textual component, which includes all land parcels and identifies owners' rights, restrictions, and responsibilities, ownership, special rights, mortgages, area of land parcel, history of the parcel etc. The record of ownership is fully computerized, updated daily and is available on the web.
  • Cadastral maps, survey documentation (about 30,000 "field books") and geodetic information files corresponding to the registered title with unique identifiers, managed by Survey of Israel. A spatial component ...
Iran:

Iranian Cadastral system typically comprises the following components:

  • Database Component - the land register identifies real property parcels, which includes all land parcels and identifies owners' rights.
  • Spatial Component - Cadastral maps show all land parcels graphically corresponding to the registered title with plan numbers and unique identifiers. These are all now digitised. Cadastral maps consist of fixed and general boundaries.
    • Fixed boundaries are those with legally surveyed measurements used to precisely identify most parcel boundaries determined by cadastral surveys such as subdivision etc. ...
Japan:

The basic cadastral components are owner, parcel number, type of land, boundary and the dimension for every parcel of land. All of them are registered and maintained. Their information is basically written on the paper and the rate of computerization is 30%.

Jordan:

The cadastral system in Jordan embraces in itself both, the land registration and the cadastral surveying. Land register contains the names of landowners and there shares, identification numbers of parcels (unique number), areas, initial values, easements and mortgages. All maps are in digital form and land registry records are automated.

Kiribati:

The Kiribati cadastral system basically consists of:

1. Register of land titles: These are registers for all freehold plots held by respective magistrate court on each island. The registers records landowner names, plot number, hamlet name, court case number and plot area. Except for the land registers for Tarawa all other island registers are still in hard copy. For Tarawa the land records have all been entered into MS Access databases.

2. Cadastral Surveys: Survey of registered freehold plots is carried out by Government surveyors. Although a significant amount of work is further required before all registered plots are completely surveyed and mapped the LIS established in 1998 that enables integration of mapping data in MapInfo with the text data in Access data bases is currently running and in use. The data input into the MapInfo tables represent the plot surveyed and coordinated and are identified with the same unique numbers allocated in the register. The boundary descriptions and dimensions would also be shown on the plan.

Korea (Rep. of):

The Korean cadastral system has several cadastral records; cadastral book, cadastral map, forestry book, forestry cadastral map, boundary coordinates records and electronic files. In case of cadastral records, it has parcel number, ownership, land use category, address, area, sheet number, asserted valuation and topology of spatial presentation by national grid, which is divided by the sheet numbering system. The parcel is presented by a point, line and polygon number and its address. The cadastral record is surveyed by information as location, parcel number, land use, area, ownership, parcel ID, map details, land transactions and valuation. ...

Latvia:

In Latvia, two registers regarding land and rights related to it - National Real Estate Cadastre Register and Land Register - are operated by different institutions.

Cadastre, as we see it, is unified account system that by administrative, organizing and technological processes secures obtaining, maintenance and use of up-to-date official textual and graphical data on real properties situated in the territory of the Republic of Latvia, land parcels, buildings, groups of premises included within them, as well as on owners, legal possessors and users, objects for real property tax and tax-payers. Content of National Real Estate Cadastre has gradually increased: if during the first four years ...

Lithuania:

Lithuania has a unified Real Property Cadastre and Register system containing the registration of real property objects, rights to these objects and legal facts.

The Real Property Register records real rights to real property objects, such as ownership, and encumbrances on these rights, and keeps information on mortgages.

Real Property Cadastre contains information on qualitative and quantitative characteristics of real property objects as well as its value.

Cadastral maps demonstrate all properties graphically corresponding to the registered title and linked to it through the unique identifiers.

The unified Real Property Cadastre and Register system is fully computerised.

Macao:

Macao Cadastral systems comprises the following components:

  • Textual Component - information retrieved from Cartography and Cadastre Bureau, Land Registry, Lands, Public Works and Transport Bureau, Civic and Municipal Affairs Bureau, Finance Bureau, etc.
  • Spatial Component - Cadastral maps show all land parcels graphically corresponding to the owner or registered title with unique identifiers.

The cadastre covers more than ten thousand land parcels including private owned, grant and government land. Both cadastral records and land registers have been computerized. Cartography and Cadastre Bureau and Land Registry conclude an agreement on data exchange via the intranet.

Malaysia:

The Malaysian cadastral system provides for textual as well as spatial information that is consistent with the two aforementioned components of the system. They are as follows:

  1. Textual aspect - the land register furnishes all necessary information, the basic ones being the name of the proprietor and the actual land alienated - through a description of its area and location, and the survey ...
  2. Spatial aspect - the country's cadastral parcel fabric can be conveniently viewed from the cadastral map produced and maintained by DSMM. With the exception of land parcels that are held under temporary titles ...

Although not strictly part of the cadastral system, valuation, local government and planning authorities are heavily reliant on the ...

Mexico:
(en espanol)

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Namibia:

The cadastre covers the total of about 150,000 land parcels. It consists of an index register and an analogue, but country wide, cadastral maps (noting sheets). There is a national coverage of control points (about 3,200 points). There is an archive of the legal survey measurements. The cadastre is updated daily. The cadastral index register and the noting plans are not yet computerised.

The Deeds Registry records legal rights in land such as ownership, mortgage and servitudes. The Deeds Registry includes the paper archives of the legal documents. The Deeds Registry is based on the cadastral identification (unique cadastral number) of the land parcels. However, the noting sheets and the legal survey measurements are hold at the Directorate of Survey and Mapping and are not available at the Deeds Registry. The Deeds Registry has been computerised and the information will be available on-line.

Nepal:

The cadastral systems in Nepal comprise the following major components:

  • Cadastral Maps - The graphical cadastral maps at the scale of survey that are identified by the systematic map sheet number and included main features in the parcel. The details of the contents are described in topic D.
  • Field Book - The field book identify the landowner (s) of each parcel, which is based on the evidence produced during registration of the parcel. It includes:
    - Description of owner and tenants (if exists)
    - Full name, address and data of birth/age (owner's unique ID ...
Netherlands:

Public registers are registers in which notarial deeds are recorded as they come in. Public registers are comparable with the land registers kept by the courts in other countries. The reason for filing in this order is the importance of the ranking of real rights. The Civil Code (Roman-French law family) assigns two important characteristics to real rights, namely a real right follows the thing, and older real rights have priority over younger real rights. With respect to the latter, the moment of recording can therefore be of crucial importance, e.g. by legal foreclosure and execution. The public registers by consequence are not easy accessible. The employees of the Agency extract the essential elements from the deed; these form ...

New Zealand :

The principal components are:

Spatial

  • Parcels are defined by survey and monuments, and documented on plans (cadastral survey datasets). Description is usually by ...

Textual

  • Land transfer register of owners and interests in land parcels, mortgages, easements etc. ...

The system of cadastral (and geodetic) survey and Land Transfer title is now fully computerised, all data being held digitally and with provision for lodgement and validation of fully structured digital survey data ...

Norway :

Our computerized cadastre system was implemented in the 1980's. This so called GAB register is for the registration of Ground parcels, Addresses and Buildings. The data registered by the co-operation between the Norwegian Mapping and Cadastre Authority and the municipalities are technical data. In addition the above mentioned parties are responsible for the parcel maps, a graphical overview over the cadastre, but not yet totally computerized and not linked to the GAB system.

The computerized Land Book has until 2004 been maintained by the local courts with reports sent to the state database. The daily monitoring of the functioning of the database is outsourced to a company owned by the Ministry of Justice. The parliament decided in 2002 to transfer the Land Book from the courts to the NMCA. 87 court offices will transfer the Land Book to NMCA's main office, Hønefoss, over approximately 3 years time. This work has started early this year as planned.

Philippines:

The following are the output of the Cadastral Surveys:

  1. Cadastral Maps (CM) indicating individual parcels and their actual geographic position.
  2. Lot Data Computation Books
  3. Lot Description Books
  4. Monument Description Books
  5. Technical Description of all lots within the Cadastre
  6. Geographic Positions of Reference Points
  7. Land Use Maps and Land Use Registers
  8. Political Boundary Maps ...
South Africa :

South Africa is fully covered by the National Control Survey System which is of high accuracy (records are kept to centimetre accuracy and the system is generally of that order) and which is marked by a network of trigonometric stations and town survey marks. A second network of active GPS Base Stations is gradually supplementing the older network. It is a legal requirement that all cadastral surveys are connected to these control networks, ensuring that:

  1. The position of every beacon and boundary is accurately known,
  2. Property boundaries do not overlap, and
  3. Beacons that are lost or destroyed can be replaced with ...
Sri Lanka:

Sri Lanka is divided into nine provinces which are divided into in all 25 Districts. It has been estimated that there are over 8.5 million parcels of land that have to be brought into the cadastre which on average will mean more than 350,000 parcels per district. Proposed Sri Lankan Cadastral systems typically comprise the following components:

  • Textual component - the land register, maintained in each Title Registry, identifies real property parcels, which includes all land parcels and identifies owners' rights, restrictions, and responsibilities, ownership, easements, mortgages etc.
  • Spatial Component - Cadastral maps, prepared by Survey ...
Sweden:
  • Real property register
  • Land Registry
  • Building Registry
  • Apartment Registry
Switzerland:

The cadastral system can be described consisting of the two main elements "land registration" and "cadastral surveying". The content of cadastral surveying is defined by a data model with 8 information layers (compare Figure 3).

The content of the land registry is mainly the registration of properties, which can be: · real estates (land parcels including buildings on them), · servitudes and easements, · mines, and · condominiums.

Tanzania:

There are two types of registers: the cadastral survey register and the titles register. The cadastral survey register contains the geometric and spatial descriptions of parcels while the titles register contains parcel ownership particulars. The Surveys and Mapping Division is at present digitizing all cadastral Survey Plans. There is also at the Ministry responsible for land development, a Management Information System unit dealing with the computerization of all other cadastral information.

Turkey:

It is a parcel registrations system which based on boundary surveying process on the field. All legal rights which parcel has including landowners information are registered on the registration book under the given parcel ID. There are great efforts to digitize land registry and cadastral information since year 2000. In addition, all cadastral measurements have been digitally collected with (X, Y) coordinates since 1987. Digital data collected from land directly transferred to the digital environment and after the edit process based on measure sketch they are plotted out with plotter. Up to now each Land Registry office is individually trying to computerize their land registration books' information. It would be said that most of the land titling information has been computerized in Turkey.

Uzbekistan:

The Uzbek Land Cadastral System typically comprises the following components:

Textual Component - state land register (book) identifying real property parcels, which includes all land parcels and owners' rights and restrictions of rights, such as ownership, easements, mortgages etc.

Spatial Component - the cadastral maps show all land parcels graphically corresponding to the registered title with plan numbers and unique identifiers. These are all now digitized. Cadastral maps consist of surveyed and not surveyed (for example natural) boundaries. Most surveyed parcel boundaries have been determined by cadastral surveys such as subdivision ...

Venezuela:

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