Description of the cadastral map, its content, and if applicable,
its data model (e.g. information layers).
Cadastral maps cover basically urban and rural areas. Urban maps
have mainly geo-reference, administrative and parcel boundaries,
buildings and complementary improvements.
Rural maps are basically integrated by geo-reference, administrative
and parcel boundaries and topographic data.
The current cadastral map (or DCDB) in all states and territories
is usually based on a graphical representation of geometric components
in electronic format. As mentioned, all jurisdictions are self-governed
and have established different solutions, data models and processes
for their digital cadastral data systems. An example is given
of a State DCDB using the state of Victoria.
The DCDB is known as Vicmap Digital and the main cadastral data
is derived from the 'Property Metadata' set. This was developed
by hand digitised base maps in urban areas at scales of about
1:500 scale. The rural areas were created using conventional parcel-based
lines, by compiling, plotting and then hand digitising parcel
detail from Parish, Township, subdivision, and road ...
The Cadastral Map (Katastralmappe) forms part of the Cadastre.
It shall make visible the position and description of the parcels
and the boundaries between the different types of land use. It
also contains information on point numbers of the boundary points,
surveying points and other descriptions.
The Cadastral Map has been developed since 1817 in paper form
for the whole area of Austria. Since 1987 the map has been digitised.
Since 2004 the whole Cadastral Map is countrywide available in
a digitized format (Digitale Katastralmappe - DKM). The data of
the Cadastral Map is consistent to the information of the databases
of the Cadastre (parcel database, database of coordinates). Similar
information is taken together in layers. The Cadastre Map gives
a graphic presentation of the digital Cadastre. It is used as
a basic information system for numerous applications such as urban
and rural planning, facility management etc.
Cadastre Map data is available for the whole of Austria from
1817 to date. Historical (analogue) data is available in paper
form or on micro fiche in the Federal Office of Metrology and
Survey (BEV). The Digital Cadastre Map (DKM) is available also
via the Internet.
Currently, we have three different medias for our cadastral plan;
each media achieve a different purpose:
- the plan on polyesters films were still updated manually
- this plan is scanned and is available on CD-Rom
- some areas have been resurveyed and are available in the
.dwg or .dxf format
The polyester film were vectorised in 2000 and 2001; they are
currently corrected, completed and updated so that in the near
future, the territory of Belgium will be completely covered by
a digital plan.
In 2004, CADMAP will be the application that will manage the
Survey Department using textual database (oracles) to store lot
information etc although GIS software is currently being used
to link the database and digital plots for the propose of map
productions visualisation and to comply with other departments
requirements for subdivision etc.
Survey Department is currently preparing Cadastral Lots in a
form of Sheets at 2,500 scale with information such as lot number
(as the identifier) with other information such as district, village
boundaries, locations etc. cadastral maps are also available at
different scales when requested.
At present day the cadastral index map covers only the systematic
land registration areas. Digital orthophoto mapping is facilitating
the elaboration of cadastral index map.
In China, the cadastral maps are divided into many layers such
as a parcel map, a distribution map of parcels, a land classification
map and more. As an administrative procedure, a parcel map must
be generated when a land certificate is issued to the owner or
user of a parcel within China's land administration system. As
a result, parcel map-making is very important in the process of
land registration. Paper size and the scale of the parcel map
can be standard, or specified by the operator. Generally, a parcel
map consists of three parts, position and surroundings of the
parcel, coordinates of its strikes, and vital attributes of the
parcel such as the owner, area and land use. The position is graphically
described by the elements of the boundary ...
Cyprus is wholly covered by cadastral survey, which according
to the method used and the degree of accuracy is classified into
the following categories:
Unsound Survey: It was carried out between 1904 and 1911, for
the preparation of cadastral plans on scale 1:2500. It is in fact
a chain survey method, but the available control was very rare.
It covers part of Famagusta district.
Chain Survey: The Chain Survey method was used after the establishment
of the triangulation in 1915. All field measurements were recorded
in field books. Cadastral plans on scales from 1:500 to 1:2500
were prepared and used for the general registration.
Plane table: By 1919 it was realized that, the survey of the
island could not be completed by 1929, which was the time target
set. Chain survey was a slow method and it was decided to survey
the remainder of the island by the method of plane table. The
plans at scale 1:5000, produced by this method were used later
for the sporadic registration of properties.
Resurvey: The resurvey project started the last few years, in
order to replace all existing cadastral plans with new ones, on
scales 1:1000 and 1:2000. This project involves the comparison
of information from various sources (like existing cadastral plans,
field surveyed data and photogrammetric data).
Currently, there are two kinds of cadastral maps in use: a) old
maps on plastic foils at historical scale 1: 2880 (covering about
70% of land) and b) newer cadastral maps at scale 1:1000 or 1:2000
(30%). Both types of maps are being digitized (about 25% completed).
Old graphical cadastral maps 1:2880 in old geographic system
(origin from 1835-1855) have been re-drawn on plastic foils. Newer
cadastral maps 1:1000 or 1:2000 in present national system (after
1927) have been practically digitized and are kept and maintained
by computer-based means.
Contents of cadastral map: geodetic control, boundaries (administrative
boundaries, boundaries of cadastral units, boundaries of ownership,
land use and preservation areas, perimeters of buildings), parcel
numbers, land use symbols, numbers of geodetic control, cartographic
symbols, place and local names.
The country wide digital cadastral map, base don the national
grid network, was completed in 1997. The digital map is essentially
a controlled digitisation of the old analogue "island maps" covering
the individual village areas surveyed by plane table at a scale
of 1:4000. The map is established in a two-stage process: Firstly,
state control points and cadastral surveys connected to the national
grid form a "skeleton" digital map. In urban areas about 40 %
of the boundary points are entered this way and in rural areas
about 20 %. Secondly, the remaining areas were inserted into the
skeleton map by transformation often using the digital topographic
map as control.
By using this approach the accuracy of the boundary coordinates
Cadastral maps are derived from approved survey plans. All cadastral
map sheets of Fiji of various imperial scales of 2 chains to an
inch, 8 chains to an inch and 16 chains to an inch have all been
converted to digital form by hand digitizing. Outputs in metric
scales of 1:1,000 (urban areas), 1:5,000 (peri-urban areas) and
1:10,000 (rural areas) are available in digital or hardcopy format.
The digital base is continuously updated as new survey plans
are approved as to survey and charted by using coordinates, thus
improving the quality of the Computerised Cadastral Mapping System
In addition, all CCMS parcels have been polygonised and structured
to support GIS applications.
CCMS updates are supplied to customers on a regular basis.
The whole country is covered with one uniform cadastral index
map. The database is centralized and seamless. This object-orientated
database consists of the map and attribute data (there is always
an updated link between these objects).
The cadastral index map consists of boundary points, boundary
lines and parcels. Parcels include identifiers of basic property
units. Also unseparated areas (conveyed areas that are not yet
surveyed) are registered.
The map consists also of servitudes that can be points (for example
well), lines (for example right of way) or areas (for example
nature conservation area).
The data model is produced only in Finnish (consists of more
than 200 objects).
The analogue cadastral maps exist generally in form of grid-maps
scale 1:1,000 based on Gauß-Krüger-coordinates. Most of these
analogue maps are now replaced by digital maps (ALK) containing
geographical information about:
- parcel boundaries and corner point markings,
- numbering of parcels,
- boundaries of districts,
- survey control points,
- outlines of houses and buildings,
- house numbers,
- street names ...
In 1989, the Survey & Mapping Office of the Lands Department
set up its Land Information System using ARC/INFO as its basic
application software. This Computerized Land Information System
(CLIS) aims to convert the existing 1:1,000 maps into digital
base information. The conversion work was being carried out by
Bureau Service and was completed in 1996. The digital map features
are separately coded thereby enabling selective retrieval and
display in definable colors and symbols.
The System contains some of the most commonly used land data,
the maintenance of which requires considerable manpower. This
- Basic Mapping at scale 1:1,000 covering the developed areas
The old analogue cadastral maps (many of them are still in use)
are varying in scale and accuracy. The scale is 1:1000, 1:2000
in urban and 1:2000, 1:4000 in rural areas but we still have 1:1440,
1:2880 scale maps. The majority of cadastral maps have been graphical
but there are many numeric maps in urban areas (Budapest and other
cities). In case of numeric maps boundary points have co-ordinates
based on field survey, boundary points shown by circles. Originally
cadastral mapping was carried out in different projection systems.
The national projection and grid system was introduced in 1980.
Since then the national grid system is compulsory to use in new
In 1990 there were no digital cadastral maps in Hungary. The
The current cadastral maps in all sates and union territories
are usually based on a graphical representation. These maps are
not following any systematic scale or datum. During the last decade,
India has started computerization of land records of the country
by storing the records in file-based database.
The rapid pace of development in many cities, necessitate planning
for an effective land information system for utilization of its
resources for development while at the same time protect the environment.
There is a need to have accurate large-scale maps in digital form
for generation of GIS/LIS. In India mapping is being performed
by Survey of India. The maps on scales 1:50k are available with
SOI for entire country. Large scales maps are also being prepared
by SOI for some areas on demand basis.
Cadastral maps in Indonesia is basically drawn on to three scale,
1:1,000 (the most common scale), 1:500 (for the dense urban areas),
and 1:2,500 (for rural areas). Especially for plantation estate,
the cadastral map uses the 1:5,000 or 1:10,000 scales.
Cadastral Block Map
In the current analog cadastre, the cadastral map constitutes
an integral part of the registration and serves to describe the
property. The cadastral maps, intended to ensure the rights of
the owner (individual or the State) to the property. Each administartive
unit (village, local municipality, etc.) is divided into registration
blocks, and each block is divided into parcels. Measurment results
are recorded in ...
In the land registration practiced in Israel, the mutation plan
is an integral part of the register and it serves as geodetic
component of the register and its revisions. The accurate mutation
plans are an important factor in keeping the records up to date
and contribute to the reliability of the land register. The 2D
mutation plan ...
The map in scale of 1:500, using photogrammetric outputs of the
cadastral system is the standard digital base and field surveying
methods. This procedure is the same procedure which is used to
prepare the 1:25000 map scale for whole country. The total number
of digital maps covering urban areas prepared in 1:500 scale figures
to around100,000 sheets. These sheets should cover at least 1,200,000
hectars in urban areas. Since 1989 till 1996 the cadastral maps
includes around 71 features with 270 fields in databases. But
after that time they decided to have just 4 features on the maps
with few fields in databases only for legal purposes.
The Tehran GIS office within the Municipality of Tehran also
prepare the 1:2000 map scale for own purposes. It should be integrated
with cadastral activities in Tehran.
The contents of cadastral map are address, boundary, parcel number,
scale, control point and coordinates.
The cadastral map in Jordan contains: name and code number of
districts, name and code number of sub districts, name and code
number of village, name and code number of block, name and code
number sector, sheet number, parcel number. All of these are combined
together to form what is called DLS key, which is a unique key
or identifier for any parcel.
Boundaries and streets lines are the spatial representation of
The data model is ARC/INFO coverages. Features are identified
by coordinates and attributes and stored in double precision.
Logical layers are administrative layers and parcels polygons
layers, however by the end of this year (2003), DLS will convert
all coverages to the latest version of ESRI product ArcGIS Geodatabase.
Initially prior 1998 cadastral maps were plotted on transparencies
at scales of 1:1250. These plans showed the boundaries of the
plot, the unique allocated number and the coordinates of the boundary
points and description.
Topographic maps compiled from orthophoto maps also plotted on
transparencies at same scale of the cadastral maps would be overlaid
for planning and identification purposes. Special sheets however
would be prepared that merge the two map set together for planning,
land use and zoning purposes.
When the Division was computerized all coordinated boundaries
were plotted onto the setup plot point layer in MapInfo. The base
topographical digital data acquired from aerial photography made
up another layer. Other cadastral data that include Government
Leases, subleases were created forming separate polygons, lines
and points. These data forms the spatial cadastral system now
Korea (Rep. of):
Cadastral map is composed of a land map and a forestry map system,
which have various scale, but majority of cadastral map scale
is 1/1200. The size of sheet is 50cm x 40cm and contains the information
as address, parcel number, land use, index, title of sheet, grid
coordinates, calculated distances of boundary, control points
and so on. From year of 1999 to 2003, all cadastral paper maps
are digitized and running with map and records in PBLIS (Parcel
Based Land Information System).
Cadastral map is digital (in form of vectors) in Latvia; it covers
the whole territory of the Republic of Latvia and serves for overview
on location of depicted objects in the territory. Map is created
in Latvian coordinate system LKS-92 in TM projection; it is obtained
by method of alignment of boundaries of parcels. In rural areas,
Cadastral map is maintained with accuracy of scale 1:10,000, but
in urban areas - with accuracy of scale 1:2,000. At present, data
of cadastral map are stored in file system, but from the end of
2006 it is planned to accumulate data of cadastral map in central
Following elements are represented in Cadastral map:
- boundaries of cadastral territories and cadastral groups;
- boundaries of parcels and their cadastral designations;
- outlines of buildings and their cadastral designations;
- areas occupied by encumbrances of right to use real property
and their designations;
- leaseholds and their cadastral designations.
Digital cadastral map represents graphical contents of the cadastral
system specifying the geometric components (location and the boundaries)
of the real property objects by means of national coordinate system.
Cadastral map consists of the graphical layer (object plans) and
descriptive layer (numerical data), inter-linked together.
Cadastral map consists of the following main layers:
- geo-referential data: vector-based or raster cartographic
material; coordinates of the national and local geodetic base
points and other information describing these points;
- boundaries, names and codes of administrative units; ...
The A4-size cadastral map contains textual and spatial information.
The scale is determined depending on the size of parcel, from
1:500 to 1:8000. The map shows the parcel identifiers, registration
number, tax identification number, location, boundary extent,
dimensions, area, etc.
Cadastral mapping is based on the Cassini-Solder Coordinate System.
Each State has its own origin and reference meridian resulting
in a total of 9 different State coordinate systems. Cadastral
maps are used primarily for identification of land parcels for
land management. On these maps are plotted all lots that are surveyed
by both government and licensed land surveyors. Prior to their
conversion to digital form, the scales of these maps vary from
1 inch to 1 chain in urban areas, to 1 inch to 8 chains, in rural
areas. All states currently have cadastral maps in digital form
based on a graphical representation of geometric components, through
the implementation of the Cadastral Data Management System (CDMS)
project, which was completed in 2002.
The noting sheets representing the cadastral map at various
scales showing all land parcels and administrative boundaries.
It shows the relationship of every piece of land to those adjoining
it. In addition other surveyed real rights, such as servitudes,
is also included in this map.
The current cadastral maps are prepared graphically. The cadastral
surveys are carried out in three different scales 1: 500, 1:1250
and 1:2500 based on the nature of the terrain and value of the
land. A team of members from Geodetic Survey and Cadastral Survey
Branches usually decides the scale of the survey. Accordingly,
the control surveys are carried out and the map sheets are prepared.
The Goswara of the Cadastral Branch performed cadastral mapping
using traditional plane table survey method. The map contents
are the parcel boundaries, parcel numbers, roads, rivers, houses,
well, spout, canal and its distribution, content of map etc It
consists of parcels with unique ID, Geo. control points, administrative
boundaries, main features or objects like ...
The cadastral maps reveal the national grid, cadastral boundaries,
parcel-identifiers, street addresses, buildings, house numbers,
and geodetic control points. Parcel related attributes can be
visualised on the cadastral map. Altogether about 300 million
co-ordinate pairs are represented in the spatial cadastral database.
Cadastral parcel data are stored in one layer as described below,
buildings are included in a separate layer.
The spatial data are represented in the database using geometric
data types such as 'point', 'line' and 'box'. In addition to the
use of these data types, some important capabilities in the data
model are storage of explicit topology and historic information.
Furthermore, nation-wide unique identifiers ...
New Zealand has complete DCDB coverage. This was initially built
by digitising existing hardcopy cadastral maps at scales from
1:1,000 to 1:50,000. The data base has full topology.
A project due to be completed at the end of 2003 will upgrade
the spatial index (converted from DCDB) in larger urban and intensive
rural areas with actual boundary dimensions and modern geodetic
control to create a survey accurate digital cadastre. Bulk spatial
data is available at the cost of dissemination.
New surveys are converted into digital format on receipt, and
after validation are adjusted into the cadastral network, so ensuring
continuing enhancement of accuracy. ...
The municipal cadastral maps are in scales from 1:500 to 1:5,000.
The cities and towns have been well mapped and usually in scale
1:500 and 1:1,000. The majority of the municipalities apply digital
mapping now. The rural areas were however poorly mapped until
the 1960's, except for small scale topographic maps without property
boundaries. A large mapping program was then started, including
registration and mapping of parcel boundaries. Applying photogrammetry
200,000 sq.km. have been mapped in scale 1:5,000. Surveyors and
land owners were involved in the premarking of the boundary points
for later air photo interpretation. The maps, named "The Economic
Map of Norway" were produced by private Norwegian companies. The
aim of this massif mapping was the needs for agriculture and forest
management, land use planning as well as for land and property
The Norwegian Mapping and Cadastre Authority, in close cooperation
with the municipalities and other major interested parties, will
soon finish the digitalization of the cadastral part of this map.
Integrated with the digital data from the municipal large scale
cadastral maps, the possibility for a Cadastre which includes
the property maps will soon be a reality.
Cadastral lots and other details of the cadastral surveys are
plotted on reproducible materials such as drafting film 0.003
inch with polyster or mylar encompassing areas within spheroidal
quadrangle of one minute of arc in latitude and one minute of
arc in longitude (approximately 1.8 km by 1.8 km) and drawn in
the Philippine Plane Coordinate System Philippine Reference System
of 1992 (PPCS-PRS92). Cadastral Map sheets are approximately 54
by 54 centimeters in size and carries a standard scale of 1:4,000.
Sectional Cadastral Maps are drawn on larger scale such as 1:2,000;
1:1,000; 1:500; on the same size as the standard cadastral maps
to show tracts of land which appears too small on the standard
scale of 1:4,000. These ...
It is a plan showing the relative position / positions and boundaries
of surveyed land parcel / parcels. Main types of cadastral maps
Diagram: It is geometrical figure containing numerical
and verbal representations of a piece of land, line, feature or
area forming the ...
General Plan: It is a plan representing the relative positions
and dimensions of two or more pieces of land together with the
same essential information ...
Sectional Title Plan: It is a plan showing portions of
buildings (sections) that can be separately owned together with
the positioning of these buildings ...
Working Plan: It is a plan drawn and signed by professional
land surveyor, and it accompany and form part of survey records
that are submitted to the ...
Compilation / Noting Sheet: It is purely cadastral map
at various scales showing all land parcels and administrative.
It shows the relationship of ...
Digital Cadastral Index Map: It is seamless computerized
map of all land parcels and administrative boundaries in South
Africa. Its other ...
Cadastral Maps for Registration of Title are required to fulfill
the requirements of section 11 of the Registration of Title Act
No. 21 of 1998. According to this Title Act, the registration
of Title to every land shall be in accordance with the cadastral
map prepared for that purpose by the Surveyor General. Registration
of Title is done systematically over an area such as Province
District or Division or any other administrative area, which the
Hon. Minister of Lands may from time to time specify and publish
in the Govt. Gazette. Once such area is gazetted the Surveyor
General will take action to prepare Cadastral Maps to cover the
declared area. Depending on the size of the area, each village
covering a cadastral map, may be divided into two or more separately
- Cadastral map of each parcel property unit in connection with
- Cadastral index maps
- Land use regulations
The "digital" cadastral map consists of 8 information layers
illustrated in Figure 3. By definition, the two layers "land cover"
and "ownership" cover the whole territory in a complete way, i.e.
without overlaps and without gaps, while other layers have different
structural definitions. Buildings are part of the "land cover"
Each of the 8 information layers is object-oriented and defined
by an entity-relationship diagram, which is the data model and
also the basis for the translation of the data into an interoperable
INTERLIS data exchange format.
The precision of cadastral surveying and the degree of detail
are prescribed in 5 different levels according to the economic
value of the areas: city ...
Every individual cadastral survey task culminates to the production
of a survey plan that is constructed at specified material type,
scale, size and format.
Information on the cadastral map includes spatial location of
parcels (coordinates and physical eg District location), parcel
numbers, boundary dimensions and sizes (area) of each parcel and
significant features existing on the ground at the time of survey.
Such features are those, which may affect the allocation of the
parcels and therefore may require to be moved or accommodated.
Other information on the plan includes boundaries of previously
surveyed adjoining land and where necessary, an inset map showing
the location of the area surveyed.
Cadastral maps consist of graphical features (parcels boundaries,
polygons, landmarks, etc.), parcel ID, coordinate tics, text for
some features (street names, etc.) and sheet related information
(pafta index, approving the sheet, etc.).
There are some types of land-cadastral maps, which serve as representation
of different land resources characteristics and the characters
of land using.
For the purpose of land plots rights registration, there are
special index cadastral maps (plans), which are made in the same
coordinate system and nomenclature as the topographic maps (plans).
The scales for index maps are: for rural areas 1: 5000, 1: 10000;
for urban areas 1: 500, 1: 2000.
The basic context of the index map (plan) is: boundaries of land
plots, cadastral numbers, main buildings, roads, water objects,
boundaries of easements, streets` names and more. The information
on the index map is put in only after registration of rights to
the land plot in the land register. Cadastral index maps (plans)
are conducted as traditional hard copies, but starting the year
2000, digital index maps (plans) are being created and conducted
in some regions.
Los mapas catastrales presentan un formato preestablecido que
varía dependiendo de la escala de representación (1:1,000, 1:5,000,
1:10,000 y 1:25,000). Las dimensiones y características de la
información que contienen, se encuentran en el archivo adjunto.