Complete the development of the Land Information Systems started
in the 90's and carried out through World Bank loans in most of
the provinces of the Country.
Guarantee the sustainability of the Land Information Systems.
Overcome the identified problems by the provinces in a survey
carried out for the Cadastre area of the National office of the
The identified problems and proposed solutions, emerging from
the survey are mentioned below. ...
1. Integrating freehold and State Crown Land to produce a
Because the two systems historically are surveyed, registered,
administered and managed separately, the integration of the two
in one seamless ...
2. Online conveyancing:
Electronic and online conveyancing and registration services,
such as the digital lodgement of subdivision plans and the transfer
of title are major challenges...
3. Moving from accurate isolated surveys to a survey accurate
Because the development of Australian cadastral surveying was
'piecemeal', created from isolated surveys, the move to adopt
a full coordinated ...
1) The late sharing of the inheritances;
2) Within the context of the Digitizing of the Cadastral Map of
Parcels: the connection between the cadastral parcel and the reality;
3) The boundary marking within the context of the preliminary
cadastration (search for the boundaries of the parcel).
There are two main reform issues concerning deconcentration and
land dispute resolution. In 2002, The Ministry of Land Management,
Urban Planning and Construction has delegated the power to 6 provincial
offices to issue the land titles. There is mechanism for out court
land dispute resolution through so-called Cadastral Commissions.
1. Lacking of enough financial support and staffing capacity:
The demands for cadastral systems to support effective land markets,
which in turn support economic development, become more and more
urgent. Cadastral survey and land registration, therefore, must
be accomplished accurately and quickly. The financial support
and staffing capacity are scarce in some local government, especially
in rural areas. It will make a strong negative impact on carrying
through cadastral works.
2. The supporting law system for sharing digital cadastral
data must be strengthened: Although some cities have developed
their digital cadastre databases, these databases remain the luxury
of government services, they are not open to public because there
have been no specific policy normalizing the use of these data.
Moving from the first inaccurate cadastral map to the new
accurate cadastral map.
The resurvey project started in the last few years, in order
to replace all existing cadastral plans with new ones, on scales
1:1000 and 1:2000. The process that is followed is very slow because
there is a need to compare information from various sources (like
existing cadastral plans, field surveyed data, photogrammetric
data, and previous applications). In the areas in which the resurvey
is completed the Digital Cadastral Data Base is replaced by the
Survey Data Base.
Need to improve efficiency, accessibility and service level
There is a need to improve efficiency, accessibility and service
level through investigation of customers' needs and through re-engineering
(including legislation reforms) and development of internet applications
and e-government procedures.
Need for closer cooperation between organizations
There is a need for closer cooperation between various organizations
dealing with spatial data to avoid duplication of effort and to
ensure uniform and homogeneous coverage of spatial and aspatial
data for the whole island.
The main problem of the cadastre - digitization of old
graphical maps - still remains. The graphical maps represent
more than 60% of cadastral maps. Technology of their overworking
enabling further maintaining as a digital cadastral map has been
developed and tested, but final decision has not been made. Missing
digitization of those maps lowers the level of remote ...
Never ending story is, of course, a financing the
cadastre. Present state is sufficient and enables further indispensable
development, but problems are in planned income. Income of the
cadastre is an income of state budget. Remote access via Internet
has been paid even by public sphere. The Ministry of Informatics
asks for remote access to cadastral data free of ...
A comprehensive cadastral reform - both legal and digital - was
carried out in the 1990's. Therefore, there are no basic problems
to be addressed. It could be argued, however, that there is a
need to consider whether the cadastre and the land book should
be merged into one cadastral system to be managed under the same
authority. This might improve the total management of the system
in terms of serving the clients.
1. The use of GPS in cadastral surveys of large areas has been
an issue of contention lately, particularly in the survey of mahogany
forests to facilitate leasing to the Fiji Hardwood Corporation,
and the survey of Native ...
2. The Land Registration System needs to be streamlined. Currently,
all cadastral survey plans are examined and approved by the Surveyor
General who resides in the Department of Lands and Survey, whilst
the registration ...
3. The lack of qualified conveyancing staff which affects the
documentation process. There is a need for training in this area.
4. The acute shortage of registered surveyors to carry out cadastral
surveys. Most, if not all, of the practicing surveyors are over
the age of 40 and some approaching retirement age. Young energetic
surveyors are urgently ...
A standard transaction (title) to a basic property unit or unseparated
area is a fast process, but subdivision (parcelling out) takes
8.1 months on average.
There are 80 updating organizations in the cadastre and the quality
of data is to be defined and harmonized. The data has been produced
during a long period of time.
As information about all the servitudes (rights of way) are not
included in the cadastre; some archive studies are often needed.
The components of the cadastral data bases for maps (ALK) and
records (ALB) date back to the 70s and 80s of the last century.
They were developed by the surveying and mapping authorities under
the technical environment and possibilities in that time. Links
from ALK to the topographical information system ATKIS® are very
difficult because of different object catalogues. The developments
do not follow national or international standards.
Further development of these software systems seems not to offer
future oriented solutions.
Hong Kong cadastre functions well in transaction, however, it
is less secure in protecting other land rights, especially land
In Hungary there is no need comprehensive reform concerning legal
and institutional framework. There are four main problems to be
solved very soon:
1) Accelerate the completion of digital cadastral mapping;
2) Fully operational on line data service of the land registry
3) Final development of the countrywide TAKAROS digital cadastral
map management system;
4) Development of market driven data services.
1. National level policies for appropriate land records
The unsystematic land survey and land records are the major
issues for proper management of land. The administrators, planners
and decision makers feels that one of the major factor for delay
in execution of land related projects ...
2. Coordinated efforts
There is a need to identify and adopt appropriate technology
for collecting cadastral data. Computerization of land records
and their updating in a consistent format is also needed to make
macro planning. Establishment ...
3. Cadastral maps on national datum
Cadastral map data base to be integrated with national datum
so that the individual land parcel and the rights of the land
holders in the parcel get prime focus in all developmental activities
launched by the government. ...
They're some important problems that the cadastre currently is
- The land registration processes requires too long procedures
- without using high-tech in surveying and mapping activities;
- manual and complicated land registration procedures;
- lack of and difficulty in gaining legal proof of land
ownership in accordance with poor land administration in
the village offices;
- Lack of cadastral (tangible and intangible) infrastructures
i.e.: maps, aerial photos/satellite images, cadastral networks,
surveying instruments, computer assisted mapping, and inadequate
land and cadastral laws and regulations.
1. Accelerating Registration: About 100-150 new land settlement
blocks and 1000-2000 registration plans are completed at the SOI
per year. It is a regrettable ...
2. Legal Coordinated Cadastre: The establishment of legal
analytical cadastre, based on coordinates, is one of the principal
goals of the SOI. The SOI plans to ...
3. Development of a better cadastral practice at the survey
of Israel: A comprehensive project for establishment a better
highly standardized and ...
4. Classification of licensed surveyors: Classification
of licensed surveyors according to the quality of cadastral block
maps and mutation plans prepared by them. ...
5. 3D Cadastre: The Israeli government decided in 1999
and in 2000 to improve the efficiency of the land use. These decisions
are pointing at the government's ...
6. The use of GPS in cadastral surveys ...
- Boundary disputes: Nowadays there is a lot of Disputes Settlement
in Iran that needs to make conformity between the accurate maps
- Expropriation and Compensation: During civil activities especially
in cities, some lands and parcels are taken by the Government
to promote the ...
- Reform on the laws and rules: Sometimes the rules and laws
are doing the opposite way of cadastral office interests and
needs to be as ...
- Protection of Property Rights: the government of Iran recognizes
intellectual property rights. Iran is a member of the Paris
- Private Ownership Rights: In general, ownership of private
property is respected. Foreigner individuals or corporate entities
who wish to own ...
- Moving from Deed to Title Registration: Historically Deed
Registration is very efficient and public today. But Government
has some ...
The three most important problems are:
- Promotion of cadastral survey;
- Maintain of cadastral system;
- Delays in standard transaction.
1. DLS recognizes the problem of low accuracy of its cadastral
maps due to historical reasons, this causes a sort of contradiction
between the physical reality on the ground and its reflection
on the maps and that this situation in no way can meet or satisfy
the needs of its clients, and introduced an important problem
that cadastral currently is confronted with and that is boundary
2. To raise the level and number of qualified staff and help
in raising the level of the licensed surveyors as well is another
challenge faces DLS.
3. Implementing the technical specifications and standards in
subdivision and boundary fixing procedures.
The undertaking of the cadastral survey of customary freehold
plots has been the primary issue. Over the last two decades Government
has initiated the surveying of registered freehold plots on 4
islands amongst the total 16 islands where customary freehold
ownership titles over land exists. Of the 4 islands none was completely
100% surveyed until the project has to be suspended in 2000 for
review. The main holdback of the exercise was the disputes that
were inevitable between owners and the adjudication of the boundary
by the Magistrate Court which obviously was a lengthy and time
consuming process. Government surveyors assigned for the task
has to sit idle to await the confirmation of the boundary by the
court. Considering the exorbitant cost and the time required for
the exercise to cover all islands alternative solutions has to
Korea (Rep. of):
For the cadastral reform, we reform on surveying method, modernization
of surveying instrument, technical and legal aspect study and
developed some area. Specially, all old cadastral maps are digitized
and we could change the surveying method from plane surveying
to digital TS and GPS surveying method. And all cadastral records
and maps are run on the PBLIS system and we plan to study co-relate
with networking system of cadastral and land registration system.
The main issues of cadastral is reformation or re-surveying project,
cadastral inconsistent area, which is different between map data
and surveying data, surveying organization, national GIS, seamless
cadastral map sheet problem, topology of database, surveying method
and so on.
1. In Latvia, one of problems is discrepancy of boundaries of
parcels in graphical data of Cadastre, which historically were
surveyed with different accuracy, because boundaries of parcels
were established with different methods during the land reform.
There are three groups of accuracy: surveyed (by using inaccurate
instruments), surveyed (by using accurate instruments) and designed
(by using cartographic material) land parcels. Quality of historically
recorded data generally is one of problems in Cadastre of Latvia.
2. In Latvia, Cadastre Register that carries out registration
of objects making property and formation of property for corroboration
in Land Register and Land Register that carries out corroboration
of ownership right are separate systems that are maintained by
different institutions. Therefore large overlapping of data exists
and procedures of corroboration of ownership right are complicated.
3. The absence of Cadastre central database is also a problem.
At present, data registration is carried out in 8 regional databases
that were created by merging 28 databases that existed initially.
- First, inadequacy of surveyed land parcel boundaries. In
the course of the land reform in Lithuania there are two types
of surveys: simplified (by using cartographic material) and
precise (by using geodetic instruments). Due to this sometimes
it is difficult to match the boundaries of parcels, what results
in gaps and overlapping of parcel boundaries. This leads to
inaccuracy of cadastral map and sometimes to boundary disputes.
- Second, separate registration of one real right to real property,
i.e. mortgage, which is registered in the Mortgage Register.
Such a situation makes the mortgaging and conveyance process
slower, more expensive also it is not convenient for clients.
- Third, the previously existed separate registration of land
and buildings on it resulted in the fact that some buildings
are not integrated with land, and it happens that the land and
the buildings on this land have different owners and addresses.
- Fourth, the absence Address Register that needs to be developed
and may serve a cross-reference register for the exchange of
data pertaining to real property.
- The land registration is optional.
- Land registration and cadastral surveying are operated by
two different departments.
- As mentioned above, there is no government department responsible
for gathering different land information and managing them in
one unique system.
1. Existence of Different Coordinate Systems
Malaysia has a rigorous cadastral system, which provides a secure
basis for land and property ownership. However, it is not altogether
flawless. One of the major drawbacks includes the incompatibility
between cadastral ...
2. Legalising the DCDB
This issue goes hand in hand with the intention of having
a continuous Certified plan (CP), which may eventually result
in the termination of the use of the said document and the consequent
need to give legal significance ...
3. Complete Cadastre
The absence of Qt information in the DCDB is the biggest hurdle
in creating a complete and up-to-date DCDB for the whole country.
Such information is either in graphic form from Land Office or
digital form of pre-comp ...
At present, one of the principal problems of the cadastral system,
among others the existence of a National Regulating Framework
for the homogenization of information, is the lack of an information
system that joins together the cadastral information at a national
The Namibian Cadastre may theoretically be of a high international
standard, but it has some severe deficiencies:
- it is unable to meet the demands for surveyed plots in the
- there is not a single, uniform land rights system and the
system is incomplete. Almost half of the country is held under
communal ownership where the land, in principal is non-marketable
and the cadastre is, at best, sporadic;
- office procedures and structures in the Directorate of Survey
and Mapping are outdated, though the survey examination time
is kept reasonably short; and
- a digital and seamless cadastral coverage of all land parcels
and administrative boundaries does not exist in Namibia.
The major three issues of cadastral system in Nepal are as follows:
1. Reliability of cadastral information
As stated earlier, the cadastral system was started to collect
the land revenue and to support land reform programme and hence
2. Level of education and Word Verification for resurvey:
As mentioned earlier, there are no universities and colleges
in Nepal for academic degree of professionalism ethics and seriousness
on the job...
3. Land administration from number of sources
In Nepal, there are more than one organizations related with
the land administration activities, which lead to the non-uniformity
in the land ...
The main problem of the Agency is the ICT renewal of legacy systems
that currently is going on in order to meet the current and future
customer requirements on one hand, and to adopt modern ICT opportunities
on the other hand. This is a complicated and expensive process,
because the renewal should take place within a growing concern
environment. Currently this process I well controlled. As a result
all databases are centralised now, with decentalised informationmanagement,
and excellent facilities for e-access. Especially for the easy
internet-access, the Aency was awarded the european e-Award 2006.
New Zealand has recently completed a major redesign and automation
of its cadastral survey and Land Transfer title systems (Landonline).
Future issues or opportunities are:
- issue of title to all Crown Land
- linking of Maori Land Information System and Landonline
- Local authority interface for certifying planning approvals
and managing street address in Landonline
- extension of e-lodgement to include more complex transactions
- full uptake and mandatory use of digital survey lodgement
2. Development of a Marine Cadastre
The Landonline system has been designed with
this capability in mind, but a comprehensive legislative and administrative
framework has yet to be developed.
1) Cadastral surveying is very much focused on the geodetic part,
whilst legal issues are generally not dealt with in the survey.
When the municipalities were assigned the responsibility to undertake
parcel surveys, only limited qualifications could be demanded.
Cadastral surveys in Norway are in most cases done by personnel
with specialized education for only 1 or 2 years. Legal issues
are often lacking in this education.
2) The initial establishment of the cadastre was mainly based
on data from the former Land Book in analogue form, and from various
sources in the municipalities. The cadastre has been gradually
improved over time, but data quality and data completion needs
to be even better. In particular more detailed information about
buildings is required.
In spite of the introduction of computers in the operation of
several government activities, the retrieving, updating and tracking
of Cadastral Maps and other data are being done manually.
The land sector through the years has experienced remarkable
increase in clientele and in number of records to manage. However,
it cannot cope with this situation due to several reasons such
as funding constraints, existing auditing rules and regulations,
lack of manpower, etc. This was aggravated by inadequate space,
poor storage facilities and frequent transfer of offices. Fire
and natural calamities such as floods also contributed to the
lost and damage of valuable records and documents. ...
The South African system of land surveying is equal to the best
in the world. The country's cadastre, or parcel-based land information
system, is highly accurate. Boundaries in surveyed areas are secure
and property co-ordinates are recorded in a national reference
system. The goal of this paper is to list a few important problems
that the South African cadastre is confronted with. Firstly, there
is problem with receiving consents for survey, secondly the incorporation
of permission to occupy (PTO's) in the South African cadastre
and lastly the different ordinances for consent approval between
the different provinces.
The South African cadastre has become used by buyers, with ...
The basic law under which both the Adjudication and the Land
Titles Registry operate is the Registration of Title Act, which
was approved by Parliament in March 1998. There are a number of
problems with this Act and amendments to it should have been made
before titles were registered and certificates issued. Proposals
for an initial set of "highly critical" amendments to the Act
have been drafted.
There are numerous other laws that require amendment to facilitate
land titling activities. Some are more closely related than others.
As a first stage, several laws, including the Registration of
Documents Ordinance, the Land Development Ordinance and the Notaries
Ordinance, will be amended ...
- An ongoing activity is to improve efficiency, accessibility
and service level from the system, through development of Internet
applications and through investigations of customary satisfaction
- The introduction of 3D real properties will call for development
of methodology to represent 3D properties on paper and on computers.
- The integration in Europe and the interest to make different
national systems compatible with each other.
- The change to object-oriented data modeling and new software
Although the new legislation for the digital data format has
been passed and put into force in 1993, cadastral surveying is
still in the process of transforming old data formats into the
new digital AV93 format. In this context, it is facing some challenges:
1. In contrast to land registry, which did not necessarily require
a complete coverage for spatial data, land information systems
now need complete ...
2. The system change in the payment of Federal agricultural subsidies
has led to a need for more precise and more up-to-date information
about the size ...
3. There are more and more public restrictions and responsibilities
interfering with private land ownership rights. They are documented
in different ...
The major problems include:
- Inadequate funding,
- Delays in delivery of planned, surveyed and serviced land.
- Old/Inadequate working tools.
- Proliferation of informal settlements in urban areas
1. Land registry and cadastral information largely are not in
digital form that can serve to other institutions.
2. Some non-coordinated graphical cadastral sheets completed
before cannot be transformed to the today's requirements (in digital
environment and coordinated).
3. There is no urban infrastructure map related with cadastral
map largely. There is a third dimension (Z coordinate) measurement
in legislation but not in practical.
It should be noted, that the term "Cadastre" has been used only
by specialists until recently, but now almost all of layers of
population are forced to use and talk about cadastral and real
property registration matters. Accordingly, the quantity of registration
transactions growths more and more as real property is being involved
into the market.
The three the most important problems of cadastre and land administration
- Distribution of functions of the state real property rights
registration between three differential agencies (fig. 2). Separate
- Material of residential buildings and its location land plots
inventory has been created over 70 years' time by the Bureau
of Technical ...
- Regarding transferring to computer technology and cadastral
maps, it is necessary to decide on the problems of development
- Falta de integración catastro - registro inmobiliario.
- Indefinición de límites político administrativo a nivel de
estados, municipios y parroquias.
- Déficit en el cubrimiento cartográfico del territorio nacional,
el cual sólo abarca un 70%; y escasez de puntos Geodésicos Municipales
referidos al nuevo Sistema Geodésico Nacional para el levantamiento
de la información catastral.